A management model for health status and illness among maritime commercial crews

Main Article Content

สุริยา โปร่งน้ำใจ กร ลาวัง สมชาย ยงศิริ ผกาพรรณ ดินชูไท เพ็ชรงาม ไชยวาณิช

Abstract

Objectives The purpose of this research was to identify risks, to study work-related illnesses
and to develop a management model of health status and illness among maritime commercial
crews in the eastern sea boundary of Thailand.
Materials and Methods A research and development method was used. 18,458 crew members
working on merchant ocean liners in the eastern sea boundary of Thailand were enrolled in
this study. 114 crews were selected based on the following criteria: 1) the risk analysis and
study of diseases which occurred while working on board, 2) the development of a health
management model and 3) the evaluation of that model. The tools used in this study included
health records, health assessment and questionnaires of risk behaviors related to work-related
illnesses. Data underwent statistical analysis for frequency, percentage, mean and standard
deviation. Qualitative data was analyzed on a content analysis basis.
Results The study found that most of the maritime commercial crews were made up of males
(67.54%), with an average age of 30.8 ± 5.08 years. In the past year, ergonomic health problems
resulting from both working conditions as well as the manner of work included shoulder pain
(89.47%), arm/elbow/wrist/hand pain (85.96%), thigh/calf pain (79.82%) as well as anxiety/
stress from long periods on board (77.19%). The results of environmental analysis and working
conditions found that most of the crew had unsafe working conditions. Ranking these working
conditions includes being subjected to falling (80.70%), followed by the ergonomics of manual
handling such as lifting, moving while lifting up, lifting down, pushing, pulling and dragging on
a regular basis (68.42%). Likewise, contact with gases/vapors of chemicals such as solvents,
acids and alkalis (57.89%), was identified as a work-related risk. The safety behaviors of the
commercial crew were estimated at a moderate level (x =3.62, S.D. = 0.83) while working with
concerns for security and following, at all times, the regulations of the highest of all safety
behaviors. The model for the health management of commercial crews focused on participation
in 4 co-operative parts, namely: co-planning, co-operating, co-observing and co-reflecting. This


participatory health management model consisted of 7-steps, i.e.: 1) to first identify health
issues related to work with a pre-occupational health assessment, to evaluate job characteristics
associated with potential risk to health and workplace injury, to assess health status and health
behavior during work, to assess risk and control of risk for seafarers and identify all health
problems related to work on board; 2) to analyze the causes of problems and match solutions
to the crew’s needs and lifestyles; 3) to plan and coordinate activities and projects towards
managing health problems; 4) to implement the developed health management plan; 5) to
evaluate the plan and its implementation; 6) to continuously improve upon the plan, and
finally; 7) to create safe work habits from the continuous practice of the developed health
management plan. The results of the evaluation of this model were found to be appropriate
and applicable at the highest level (x = 4.88, S.D. = 0.70).
Conclusion Thai maritime commercial crews currently work in unsafe working environments
with high risks of work-related illnesses. Their current safety behavior is at a moderate level.
Therefore, this model of health management shall be promoted to help identify and prevent
future work-related illnesses among maritime commercial crews

Keywords

Article Details

Section
Original article

References

1. ส?ำนักงานคณะกรรมการพัฒนาการเศรษฐกิจและ
สังคมแห่งชาติ. รายงานโลจิสติกส์ของประเทศไทย
ประจ?ำปี 2557. กรุงเทพฯ: ส?ำนักงานคณะกรรมการ
พัฒนาการเศรษฐกิจและสังคมแห่งชาติ; 2558.
2. ศูนย์ข้อมูลข่าวอาเซียน. SEAN Economics
Community (AEC) คืออะไรและคนไทยต้องเตรียม
พร้อมอย่างไร. กรุงเทพฯ: กรมประชาสัมพันธ์; 2558.
3. กรมการขนส่งทางน?้ำและพาณิชยนาวี. รายงานการ
ส?ำรวจสถิติการขนส่งสินค้าทางน?้ำบริเวณเมืองท่า
ชายทะเล. กรุงเทพฯ: กระทรวงคมนาคม; 2551.
4. สุกัญญา เจริญวัย. สรุปสาระส?ำคัญของอนุสัญญา
ว่าด้วยแรงงานทางทะเล พ.ศ. 2549 ในประเด็น
ที่เกี่ยวกับสวัสดิภาพของแรงงานที่ท?ำงานบนเรือ
ประมง. กรุงเทพฯ: กองประมงต่างประเทศ กรม
ประมง; 2553.
5. Roger, B. Environmental health concepts
and practice. Pennsylvania: Saunders. 2003.
6. Dae-Seong Kim and Seong-Kyu Kang. Workrelated
Cerebro-Cardiovascular Diseases in
7. Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science.
2003; Dec; 25(Suppl): S105–S111.
8. Virtanen M, Ferrie JE, Singh-Manoux A,
Shipley MJ, Vahtera J, Marmot MG, Kivimäki
M. Overtime work and incident coronary
heart disease: the Whitehall II prospective
cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1737-44.
9. Liu Y, Tanaka H. Fukuoka Heart Study Group.
Overtime work, insufficient sleep, and risk
of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in
Japanease men. Occup Environ Med. 2002;
59: 447-51.
10. National Statistics Ofce. 2009. Available
from: http://kosis.nso.go.kr [accessed on 15
September 2010].
11. นพวรรณ มาดารัตน์. ข้อมูลบริการสุขภาพ.
กรุงเทพฯ: ส?ำนักนโยบายและยุทธศาสตร์; 2548.
12. Division of Epidemiology. Annual reports of
Decompression sickness between1991-1998.
Division of Epidermiology. AIDS Surveillance.
Bangkok. 1997.
13. กระเษียร มหาพล. ท?ำไม? การตรวจสุขภาพคน
ท?ำงานบนเรือจึงส?ำคัญ. 2560. [อินเทอร์เนท].
เข้าถึงเมื่อ: 26 กันยายน 2561. เข้าถึงได้จาก:
https://www.phyathai.com/article_detail.
php?id=2377&search
14. กรมการขนส่งทางน?้ำและพาณิชยนาวี. รายงานการ
ส?ำรวจสถิติการขนส่งสินค้าทางน?้ำบริเวณเมืองท่า
ชายทะเล. กรุงเทพฯ: กระทรวงคมนาคม; 2550.
15. Kemmis, S., and McTaggart, R. The action
research reader (3rd ed.) Geelong:Deakin
University Press. 1988.
16. จตุภูมิ เขตจัตุรัส. วิธีการและเครื่องมือประเมินการ
เรียนรู้ของผู้เรียน. คณะศึกษาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัย
ขอนแก่น: ขอนแก่น. 2560.
17. Best, J. W. Research in education (4th ed.).
New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1981.
18. Cronbach, L. J. Essentials of Psychological
Test (5th ed.). New York: Harper Collins. 1970.
19. Kristen L. Kucera. Ergonomic Assessment
and Low Back Pain among Commercial
Fisherman. Dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in the Department
of Epidemiology, School of Public Health.
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Chapel Hill. United States of America.
20. Mallam S.C. & Lundh. M. The physical work
environment and end-user requirements:
Investigating marine engineering officers’
operational demands and ship design. Work.
2016; 54: 989-1000.
21. American Bureau of Shipping. Discussion
paper: Ergonomics for the Marine Industry-
Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders.
ABS: Houston, Texas. 2014.
22. Jeebbhay M et.al. Word at work: Fish
processing workers. Occupational and
Environmental Medicine. 2004; 471-4.
23. Halder, C., Van Gorp, G.S., Hatourn, N.S.,
Warne, T.M. Evaluation of nephrotoxity of
major C4/C5 hydrocarbon components,
American Industrial Hygiene Association
journal, (1986 a); 47 (3), pp. 173-5.
24. Halder, C.A., Van Gorp, G.S., Hatourn, N.S,
Warne, T.M. Gasoline vapor exposures. Part
I. Characterization of workplace exposures,
American Industrial Hygiene Association
journal, 1986 b; 47, pp. 164-72.
25. Svendsen, K., Hilt, B. Exposure to mineral
oil and respiratory symptoms in marine
engineers, American journal of industrial
medicine, 1997 a 32 (1), pp.84-9.
26. Svendsen, K., Hilt, B. Skin disorders in ship’s
engineers exposed to oils and solvents,
Contact dermatitis. 1997 b; 36, pp. 216-20.
27. Moen, B.E. Work with chemicals on deck of
Norwegian chemical tankers, International
archives of occupational and environmental
health, 1991; 62, pp.543-7.
28. Jorn Fenstad, Oyvind Dahl and Trond
Kongsvik. Shipboard safety: exploring
organizational and regulatory factors.
Maritime policy & Management. 2016; 43:
552-568.
29. Oltedal, Helle and Wadsworth, Emma Jane
Kirsty. Risk perception in the Norwegian
shipping industry and identification of
influencing factors. Maritime Policy &
Management. 2010; 37, pp. 601-623.
30. Osborn, Alex F. Applied Imagination;
Principles and Procedures of Creative
Problem-Solving. New York: Scribner, 1963.