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Injuries and illness of the athletes are important issues due to the impact on the sport results. This observation descriptive study aimed to survey the prevalence of injuries and illness of the Thai athletes in 18th ASEAN University Games, at the Republic of Singapore from 9 to 19 July 2016. The type of sport, details of injury or illness, diagnosis and treatment were recorded from the team physician. Among 269 athletes, 36 of 172 (20.9%) male athletes and 30 of 97 (30.9%) female athletes were injured. The prevalence of injury in the full-contact sports and limited-contact sports were 37.1% and 36.8% respectively. Among the 16 types of sport, basketball, badminton and swimming injured about 18.2%, 15.2% and 12.1%, respectively, which were 45.5% of all injuries. There were no injuries reported in many types of sport, such as archery, shooting, petanque, sepak takraw and table tennis.The most common injuries were sprains and strains (82.7%). The ankle and knee were the most common sites of injuries. The most common illness was common cold.The 3 most prescribed medicationswere cold remedies (24.5%), paracetamol (23.7%) and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (18.1%). The most common physical therapies were massage (26.3%) and ultrasound (22.9%). In conclusion, the sport injury and illness of athletes during competition are common. This data is a potentially useful guideline to prevent further injury and illness of the athletes for the future sporting events.