Main Article Content
The purposes of this research were to: (1) study the levels of self-care behaviors, social support, perceived self-efficacy, attitudes of the elderly and knowledge about diabetes, and behaviors towards elderly care among elderly caregivers, (2) do multi-level confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of self-care behaviors among the elderly at an individual level and a sub-district level, and (3) study multi-level causal factors of self-care behaviors among the elderly at an individual level and a sub-district level. The samples consisted of 922 elderly people and 31 elderly caregivers. The data were gathered by using two questionnaire whose reliability values are 0.96 and 0.93. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, multi-level confirmatory factor analysis and multi-level causal factor analysis. The results were found that: (1) the level of self-care behaviors of the elderly were at the highest level, social support and perceived self-efficacy were high. The attitudes towards self-care of the elderly was moderate. The results on the elderly caregivers were found that the level of the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards elderly cares was high. (2) The measurement model of multi-level self-care behaviors of the elderly was valid structurally or it was fit to the empirical data. In addition, (3) Causal factors influencing self-care behaviors of the elderly found that social support (β = 0.264), self-efficacy (β = 0.201) and self-care attitude (β = 0.372) As a result, the self-care behavior of the elderly was 40.40%. For variables at the subdistrict level, knowledge of diabetes (β = 0.071), attitudes towards elderly care (β = 0.276) and behavioral care (β = 0.106) directly affect the self-care behavior of the elderly. The predictors of self-care behaviors of the elderly were 26.30%.