Model of Self-Development for Enhancing Psychological Immunity of the Elderly

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Oraphin Choochom Umaporn Sucaromana Jennifer Chavanovanich Peter Tellegen


The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a self-development intervention for enhancing psychological immunity of the elderly. The psychological immunity intervention (PI) was based on an integration of mindfulness, self-efficacy, and optimism approaches. The study was a quasi-experimental design, including pre-test and post-test with a control group. The sample was recruited from senior clubs in Bangkhunthian District, Bangkok, Thailand. Participants were divided into 2 groups. The intervention group (24 participants) participated in the PI intervention activities, and the control group (24 participants) did not receive any intervention. The PI intervention consisted of 10 sessions for 5 weeks which lasted for two hours per session. Participants from both groups completed the questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. The results showed that participants in the PI intervention group scored significantly higher on psychological immunity (F(1, 43) = 15.04, p < .01, partial eta-squared = .26) and psychological well-being (F(1, 44) = 23.33, p < .01, partial eta-squared = .35) than did the control group. More specifically, participants receiving the PI intervention showed significantly greater psychological immunity in the domains of resilience, mindfulness, and hope than did the control group. The findings suggest that the intervention was beneficial for the elderly and senior clubs to improve psychological immunity and well-being. The study provides implications for enhancing psychological immunity from a behavioral science approach.


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How to Cite
Choochom, O., Sucaromana, U., Chavanovanich, J., & Tellegen, P. (2019). Model of Self-Development for Enhancing Psychological Immunity of the Elderly. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 14(1), 84-96. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Oraphin Choochom, Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand

Associate Professor at Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand

Umaporn Sucaromana, Faculty of Education, Ramkamhaeng University, Thailand

Lecturer at Faculty of Education, Ramkamhaeng University, Thailand

Jennifer Chavanovanich, Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand

Lecturer at Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand

Peter Tellegen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands

SON Test Research, the Netherlands. (Retired Professor at University of Groningen, the Netherlands)


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