Patterns of Element Concentrations and Heavy Metal Accumulations in Edible Seaweed, Gracilaria fisheri (Xia and Abbott) Abbott, Zhang and Xia (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) Cultivation in Southern Thailand

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Phi Thi Nguyen Rapeeporn Ruangchuay Chokchai Lueangthuwapranit


Patterns of elemental concentration and heavy metal accumulation were examined in the edible seaweed, Gracilaria fisheri, cultivated in ponds located in three provinces of Southern Thailand. Seaweed, water, and sediment were collected in the dry season during the cultivation period. The amounts of elements and heavy metals in seaweed were found in the following ranges: calcium (Ca) 9.22–10.01, magnesium (Mg) 11.40–13.40, potassium (K) 1.85–23.35, sodium (Na) 1.60–4.96, copper (Cu) 1.65–2.91, manganese (Mn) 557.05–746.75, zinc (Zn) 30.15–36.60, iron (Fe) 172.95–841.23, nickel (Ni) 6.03–8.26, chromium (Cr) 1.43–2.80, cadmium (Cd) 0.08–0.13, and lead (Pb) 4.79–6.60 µg∙g-1 dry weight. None of the elements showed a relationship between levels in seaweed and in either water or sediment, but we did find relationships with other elements. Macro-elements Mg, K and Na in seaweed showed a relationship with Mg, Na and Zn concentrations in the water, and with Cu, Mn, Fe and Ni concentrations in the sediment. Apparently, micro-elements Mn and Fe in seaweed were related to Cu, Mn and Cr concentrations in the sediment. Our study indicated that the patterns of element and heavy metal concentration in seaweed, G. fisheri, were inconsistent with the patterns of those elements in its surrounding environment.


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