Functional Properties and Applications of Egg White Protein Hydrolysates

Main Article Content

ทิพย์วลี จุลมัญลิก ศศิธร คงเรือง


Protein hydrolysates are products derived from the hydrolysis of protein to gain different sizes of peptide and free amino acid. The production of protein hydrolysates involves either chemical hydrolysis using acid, alkaline or enzymatic hydrolysis through protease under the specific condition. The production of protein hydrolysate can be produced from many sources of protein. One of the most important source is the egg white protein which play a vital role in the food industry and popularly used as neutraceuticals. Moreover, it also contains many functional properties as emulsifier, foam stability and antioxidant. This source of hydrolysate is suitable for people who have a food restriction, need high protein content. It also can be used as bioactive substances for human health. This review article presents research and information related to egg white protein hydrolysate, the production process of egg white protein hydrolysate and the applications of egg white protein hydrolysates in the food and pharmaceutical industry.


Article Details

How to Cite
จุลมัญลิกท., & คงเรืองศ. (2019). Functional Properties and Applications of Egg White Protein Hydrolysates. Journal of Food Technology, Siam University, 14(1), 69-87. Retrieved from
บทความวิชาการ (Academic Article)


[1] Severin, S. and Xia, W.S. (2006). Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins by two different proteases and their effect on the functional properties of resulting protein hydrolysates. Journal of Food Biochemistry 30(1):77-97.
[2] Pasupuleti, V.K. and Braun, S. (2010). State of the art manufacturing of protein hydrolysates. Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg, New York, NY, USA. pp. 11–32.
[3] Lahl, W.J. and Windstaff, D.A. (1989). Spices and seasonings: hydrolysed proteins. In: Proceedings of the 6th SIFST Symposium on Food Ingredients-applications, Status, and Saftey. Singapore Institute of Food Science and Technology, Singapore. pp. 51–65.
[4] Haard, N.F. (2001). In: Sikorski, Z.E. (Ed.), Enzymic modification proteins in food systems. chemical and functional properties of food proteins. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 155–190.
[5] Vanga, S.K. and Raghavan, V. (2017). Processing effects on tree nut allergens: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57:3794-3806.
[6] Farkas, D.F. and Hoover, D.G. (2000). High pressure processing. Journal of Food Science. 65(s8):47–64.
[7] Wu, T.Y., Guo, N., Teh, C.Y. and Hay, J.X.W. (2012). Advances in ultrasound technology for environmental remediation. Springer Science & Business Media.
[8] Rivalain, N., Roquain, J. and Demazeau, G. (2010). Development of high hydrostatic pressure in biosciences: pressure effect on biological structures and potential applications in biotechnologies. Biotechnology Advances. 28(6):659–672.
[9] Hill, L.R., Silvestri, L.G., Ihm, P., Farchi, G. and Lanciani, P. (1965). Automatic classification of staphylococci by principal-component analysis and a gradient method. Journal of Bacteriology 89(5):1393-1401.
[10] Olcott, H. S. and H. Fraenkel-Conrat (1947). Chemical reviews. 41:151-197.
[11] Udenigwe, C.C. and Aluko, R.E. (2012). Food protein-derived bioactive peptides: Production, processing, and potential health benefits. Journal of Food Science. 77(1):11–24.
[12] Vanga, S. K., Singh, A. and Raghavan, V. (2017). Review of conventional and novel food processing methods on food allergens. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57(10):2077–2094.
[13] Singh, A. and Ramaswamy, H.S. (2014). Effect of high-pressure treatment on trypsin hydrolysis and antioxidant activity of egg white proteins. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 49(1):269–279.
[14] Eckert, E., Zambrowicz, A., Pokora, M., Polanowski, A., Chrzanowska, J., Szoltysik, M., Dabrowska, A., Róz˙an´ski, H. and Trziska, T. (2013). Biologically active peptides derived from egg proteins. World's Poultry Science Journal. 69(2):375–386.
[15] Lin, S., Jin, Y., Liu, M., Yang, Y., Zhang, M., Guo, Y., Jones, G., Liu, J. and Yin, Y. (2013). Research on the preparation of antioxidant peptides derived from egg white with assisting of high-intensity pulsed electric field. Food Chemistry. 139:300–306.
[16] Lafarga, T. and Hayes, M. (2014). Bioactive peptides from meat muscle and by-products: generation, functionality and application as functional ingredients. Meat Science. 98(2):227–239.
[17] Ozuna, C., Martínez, I.P., Tostado, E.C., Ozimek, L., Llano, S.L.A. (2015). A review. Innovative applications of high-intensity ultrasound in the development of functional food ingredients: production of protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides. Food Research International. 77:685-696.
[18] Pokora, M., Eckert E., Zambrowicz, A., Bobak, Ł., Szołtysik, M., Dabrowska, A., Chrzanowska, J., Polanowski A. and Trziszka, T. (2014). Biological and functional properties of proteolytic enzyme-modified egg protein by-products. Food Science & Nutrition. 1(2):184–195.
[19] Desert, C., Guerin-Dubiard, C., Nau, F., Jan, G., Val, F. and Mallard, J. (2001). Comparison of different electrophoretic separations of hen egg white proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49(10):4553–4561.
[20] Baron, F., Nau, F., Gu erin-Dubiard, C., Bonnassie, S., Gautier, M., Simon, C. and Andrews Jan, S. (2015). Egg white versus Salmonella Enteritidis! a harsh medium meets a resilient pathogen. Food Microbiology. 53:82-93.
[21] Miguel, M., Ramos, M., Aleixandre, MA. and Lopez-Fandino, R. (2006). Effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion on the antihypertensive properties of ACE-inhibitory peptides derived from ovalbumin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54(3):726–731.
[22] Castro, R.J.S. and Harumi Sato, H. (2014). A response surface approach on optimization of hydrolysis parameters for the production of egg white protein hydrolysates with antioxidant activities. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 4:55–62.
[23] Ai, M., Tang, T., Zhou, L., Ling, Z. and Guo, S. (2019). Effects of different proteases on the emulsifying capacity, rheological and structure characteristics of preserved egg white hydrolysates. Food Hydrocolloids. 87:933–942.
[24] Singh, A. and Ramaswamy, H.S. (2014). Thermal and high-pressure inactivation kinetics of avidin. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 38(4):1830–1839.
[25] Manas, P., Munoz, B., Sanz, D. and Condon, S. (2006). Inactivation of lysozyme by ultrasonic waves under pressure at different temperatures. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 39(6):1177–1182.
[26] Lee, J. O., Sung, D., Park, S. H., Lee, J., Kim, J., Shon, D. H. and Han, Y. (2017). Effect of acid treatment on allergenicity of peanut and egg. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 97(7):2116–2121.
[27] Yang, A., Long, C., Xia, J., Tong, P., Cheng, Y. and Wang, Y. (2017). Enzymatic characterisation of the immobilised Alcalase to hydrolyse egg white protein for potential allergenicity reduction. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 97(1):199–206.
[28] Abeyrathne, E., Lee, H., Jo, C., Suh, J. and Ahn, D. (2016). Enzymatic hydrolysis of ovomucin and the functional and structural characteristics of peptides in the hydrolysates. Food Chemistry. 192:107–113.
[29] Hernández-Carrión, M., Hernando, I. and Quiles, A. (2014). High hydrostatic pressure treatment as an alternative to pasteurization to maintain bioactive compound content and texture in red sweet pepper. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 26:76–85.
[30] Bigliardi, B. and Galati, F. (2013). Innovation trends in the food industry: the case of functional foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 31(2):118–129.
[31] Kristinsson, H.G. and Rasco, B.A. (2000). Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 40: 43-81.
[32] Elias, R.J., Kellerby, S.S. and Dec, E.A. (2008). Antioxidant activity of protein and peptide. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 48(5):430-441.
[33] Garcés-Rimón, M., Sandoval, M., Molin, E., López-Fandiño, R. and Miguel, M. (2016). Egg protein hydrolysates: new culinary textures. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science. 3:17–22.
[34] Han, A., Romero, H.M., Nishijima, N., Ichimura, T., Handa, A., Xu, C., Zhang, Y. (2019). Effect of egg white solids on the rheological properties and bread making performance of gluten-free batter. Food Hydrocolloids. 87:287–296.
[35] Moure, A., Dominguez, H. and Parajo, J.C. (2006). Antioxidant properties of ultrafiltration recovered soy protein fractions from industrial effluents and their hydrolysates. Process Biochemistry. 41(2):447–456.
[36] Li-Chan, E.C. (2015). Bioactive peptides and protein hydrolysates: research trends and challenges for application as nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients. Current Opinion in Food Science. 1:28–37.
[37] Kratz, F. (2008). Albumin as a drug carrier: design of prodrugs, drug conjugates and nanoparticles. Journal of Controlled Release. 132(2):171–183.
[38] Kovacs-Nolan, J. K. N., Phillips, M. and Mine, Y. (2005). Advances in the value of eggs and egg components for human health. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.53(22):8421–8431.
[39] Oguro, T., Watanabe, K., Tani, H., Ohishi, H. and Ebina, T. (2000). Morphological observations on antitumour activities of 7-10 kDa fragment in α-subunit from pronase treated ovomucin in a double grated tumor system. Food Science and Technology Research. 6:179–185.
[40] Miguel, M., Recio, I., Gómez-Ruiz, JA., Ramos, M. and López-Fandiño, R. (2004). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of peptides derived from egg white proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis. Journal of Food Protection. 67(9):1914-1920.
[41] Miguel, M. and Aleixandre, A. (2006). Review antihypertensive peptides derived from egg proteins. The Journal of nutrition. 136(6):1457-1460.
[42] Matoba, N., Yamada, Y., Usui, H., Nakagiri, R. and Yoshikawa, M. (2001). Designing potent derivatives of ovokinin(2-7), an anti-hypertensive peptide derived from ovalbumin. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65(3):736-9.
[43] You, S.J. and Wu, J. (2011). Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of egg protein hydrolysates produced with gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal enzymes. Journal of Food Science. 76(6):C801-7.
[44] Xu, Q., Fan, H., Yu, W., Hong, H. and Wu, J. (2017). Transport study of egg derived antihypertensive peptides (LKP and IQW) using Caco-2 and HT29 co-culture monolayers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65(34):7406–7414.
[45] Yu Z., Yin Y., Zhao W., Yu Y., Liu B., Liu J. and Chen F. (2011) Novel peptides derived from egg white protein inhibiting alpha-glucosidase. Food Chemistry. 129:1376–1382.
[46] Bejjani, S. and Wu, J. (2013). Transport of IRW, an ovotransferrin-derived antihypertensive peptide, in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61(7):1487–1492.
[47] Ding, L., Wang, L. Y., Yu, Z. P., Zhang, T. and Liu, J. B. (2016). Digestion and absorption of an egg white ACE-inhibitory peptide in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 67(2):111–116.
[48] Ding, L., Zhang, Y., Jiang, Y., Wang, L., Liu, B. and Liu, J. (2014). Transport of egg white ACE-inhibitory peptide, Gln-Ile-Gly-Leu-Phe, in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers with cytoprotective effect. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62:3177–3182.
[49] Miguel, M., Manso, M.A., Da´valos,A., Pen, G., Lasuncio´n, M.A. and Lo´pez-Fandin˜o, R. (2008). Transepithelial transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers of antihypertensive egg-derived peptides. PepT1-mediated flux of Tyr-Pro-Ile. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 52:1507–1513.
[50] Liu, J., Jin, Y., Lin, S., Jones, G. and Chen, F. (2015). Purification and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from egg white protein and their antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry. 175:258–266.
[51] Carrillo, W., Go´mez-Ruiz, J.A., Miralles, B., Ramos, M., Barrio, D. and Recio, I. (2016). Identification of antioxidant peptides of hen egg-white lysozyme and evaluation of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in the Zebrafish model. European Food Research Technology. 242:1777–1785.
[52] Sinha, R. and Radha, C. (2007). Whey Protein hydrolysate: functional properties, nutritional quality and utilization in beverage formulation. Food Chemistry. 101(4): 1484–1491.
[53] Miguel, M. and Contreras, M. (2009). ACE-inhibitory and antihypertensive properties of a bovine casein hydrolysate. Food Chemistry. 112(1):211–214.
[54] Chen, C. and Chi, Y.J. (2012) a. Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from egg white protein hydrolysate. Amino Acids. 43(1):457–466.
[55] Chen, C. and Chi, Y.J. (2012) b. Influence of degree of hydrolysis on functional properties, antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of egg white protein hydrolysate. Food Science and Biotechnology. 21:27–34.
[56] Nchienzia, H. and Morawicki, R. (2010). Enzymatic hydrolysis of poultry meal with endo-and exopeptidases. Poultry Science. 89(10):2273–2280.
[57] He, R. and Alashi, A. (2013) a. Antihypertensive and free radical scavenging properties of enzymatic rapeseed protein hydrolysates. Food Chemistry. 141(1):153–159.
[58] He, R. and Malomo, S.A. (2013) b. Purification and hypotensive activity of rapeseed protein-derived renin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. Journal of Functional Foods. 5(2):781–789.
[59] Li, Y. and Jiang, B. (2008)b. Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of chickpea protein hydrolysate (CPH). Food Chemistry. 106(2):444–450.
[60] Karamac, M. and Kosi nska-Cagnazzo, A. (2016). Use of different proteases to obtain flaxseed protein hydrolysates with antioxidant activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17(7): 1027.
[61] Girgih, A.T. and Udenigwe, C.C. (2011) a. In vitro antioxidant properties of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate fractions. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 88(3):381–389.
[62] Girgih, A.T. and Udenigwe, C.C. (2011) b. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition and antihypertensive effects of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 88(11):1767–1774.
[63] Jamdar, S. and Rajalakshmi, V. (2010). Influence of degree of hydrolysis on functional properties, antioxidant activity and ACE inhibitory activity of peanut protein hydrolysate. Food Chemistry. 121(1):178–184.
[64] Li, H. and Aluko, R.E. (2010). Identification and inhibitory properties of multifunctional peptides from pea protein hydrolysate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(21):11471–11476.
[65] Vilcacundo, R. and Martínez-Villaluenga, C. (2017). Release of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, a-amylase and a-glucosidase inhibitory peptides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) during in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Journal of Functional Foods. 35:531–539.
[66] Zhou, K., Sun, S. (2012). Production and functional characterisation of antioxidative hydrolysates from corn protein via enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Food Chemistry. 135 (3):1192–1197.
[67] Hall, F.G. and Jones, O.G. (2017). Functional properties of tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) protein hydrolysates. Food Chemistry. 224:414–422.
[68] Athukorala, Y. and Kim, K.N. (2006)b. Antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of an enzymatic hydrolysate from brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 44(7):1065–1074.