Effect of the Self-Efficacy Program on Health Behavior among Older Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
The present study was based on a two-group quasi-experimental research design aimed to study the effects of a self-efficacy program on health behavior among older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The samples were composed of 54 older adults with COPD who sought treatment at the Adult COPD and Asthma Clinic, Secondary Care Hospital in the Northeast. Data were collected in July – September 2016. The samples were recruited based on set characteristics and were simple randomly selected into an experimental or a control group (27 samples each). The experimental group received the self-efficacy program for older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory was used as the conceptual framework for the study. The program was consistied of video providing knowledge and demonstrating good models of older adults with COPD, the self-care handbook and the health behavior adjustment recording form, telephone follow-up visit plans and modified Borg scale. The control group received routine care only. Data collection instruments were composed of the following: 1) the personal data questionnaires and 2) the questionnaire on the health behaviors of older adults with COPD. Data analysis was performed by comparing the post-experimental mean health behavior scores of the older adults with COPD between the experimental and control groups with the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U Test. The results of the: the posttest findings revealed that the older adults with COPD who received the self-efficacy program had higher mean rank scores of health behavior than the older adults who received routine care only with statistical significance (p< .001), with increases in health behavior scores in all three areas, namely, health promotion, relaxation, and breathing practice and exercise. Recommendations: The self-efficacy program could be implemented for older adults with COPD during discharge planning. The program would promote the patients’ self-confidence and modify their health behaviors.