Energy and Nutrients Intake of Pregnant Thai Women: a Study at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital
This study aimed to assess energy and nutrients intake of pregnant women in each trimester and investigate the association between education, occupation, income and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and energy and nutrients intake of pregnant women. Demographic data of pregnant women was obtained using questionnaire. One day of 24-hour diet recall was conducted in each trimester. Energy and nutrients intake were calculated and compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for Thais 2003.
Five hundred and fourteen pregnant women received energy 1,469.2, 1,800.4 and 1,847.2 kcal/day in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively. Appropriate energy distribution in each trimester was observed, 56:17:27, 54:17:29 and 54:17:29, respectively. Minerals and vitamins intake including calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C were 62-91%, 73-99%, 88-116% and 89-110% DRI, respectively. For iron and vitamin A, intakes of 11-14% and 45-62% DRI were reported. Pregnant women in the present study received energy and nutrients adequately (>70% DRI), while insufficient intakes of iron and vitamin A were investigated. Spearman correlation test showed a significant association between education and fat intake in all trimesters (p<0.05). In 3rd trimester, education associated with energy, protein and iron intake significantly (p<0.05). There were not statistically significant relationships between pre-pregnancy BMI, occupation and income with energy and nutrients intake (p>0.05).