An Applied Recreational Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) and Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism Destination Management: A Case of Kood Island

  • ปณิตา วงศ์มหาดเล็ก Faculty of Architecture, Silpakorn University
  • กัตติกา กิตติประสาร Faculty of Architecture, Silpakorn University
  • กัลมลี ธรรมิกบวร Urban Planner, Ubon Ratchathani Municipality
  • กรวรรณ รุ่งสว่าง Urban Planner, Lopburi Provincial Administrative Organization
Keywords: Tourism Planning, Tourism Management, Carrying Capacity (CC), Recreational Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), Kood Island


         The main objective of this article is to disseminate academic service findings with regard to a study of zoning and carrying capacity of tourism in tourism development district funded by Ministry of Tourism and Sports.
         As an academic service, this study adopts an integrated theoretical framework stemmed from policies and plans (national to regional, provincial and local levels), legislations in relating to Kood Island’s land uses and applications of various theories in Carrying Capacity (CC), Recreational Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), environmental psychology, landscape perception, and territoriality & personal space behavior. The results of ROS research were zoning which was used as a guidance for carrying capacity. ROS and zoning were made base on local tourism policy maker and industry. Carrying capacity of Kood Island’s tourism development districts therefore responses to both physical and psychological area requirements.
        This study is using mixed method. It comprised of qualitative methods which are site survey and non-participant and participant observation, in-depth open-end interview with tourists, local service providers, government authorities and local administrations as well as quantitative methods of statistic method in tourist opinion survey by questionnaires and remote sensing data and GIS in analyzing physical attributes and synthesizing Physical Carrying Capacity. Policy and brainstorming meeting of stakeholders were conducted to conclude and endorse zoning and carrying capacity.
         The research findings reveal that there are four appropriate ROS zonings of Kood Island: Primitive Use Zone, Semi-Primitive Use Zone without Vehicle, Semi-Primitive Use Zone with Vehicle, and Rural Use Zone. Regarding analysis of related factors, Kood Island’s total Carrying Capacity is 2,280 people as a result of limited facilities (hotel and water supply) which are now number of tourists almost exceed CC. Although its Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC) and Psychological Carrying Capacity (PsCC) are higher, 14,456 and 9,163 people respectively. In order to increase a number of tourists exceeding its total CC, key facilities need to be improved and other problems affecting Kood Island’s tourism, for example land ownership, wastewater from resorts, public accessibility to private beach, public transportation, low tourists during the low season, and tourist service control also need to be solved.

How to Cite
วงศ์มหาดเล็กป., กิตติประสารก., ธรรมิกบวรก., & รุ่งสว่างก. (2019). An Applied Recreational Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) and Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism Destination Management: A Case of Kood Island. NAJUA: Architecture, Design and Built Environment, 34(1), B1-B20. Retrieved from
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