THE APPLICATION OF CASSAVA STARCH FROM TWO CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) CULTIVARS AS A BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC PRODUCT.
The purpose of this research was to study the effect of using glycerol as a plasticizer on physical and mechanical properties of the film made of cassava starch. Two cultivars of the cassava, Ha-Na-Tee and Rayong 2, were used in this study. The preparation of the film was performed by dissolving cassava starch in water to the concentration of 5 wt% and the glycerol was added at 4 levels; 0, 20, 30 and 40 wt%. The film was casted in a mold and dried at 60 oC for 18 h. The properties; thickness, water activity (aw), solubility, tensile strength (TS), puncture strength, and the degradation of the films were evaluated. The thickness of the films was in the range of 0.20-0.30 mm. The aw value of films ranged from 0.40 to 0.50. The cassava starch of both cultivars could form flexible films by using glycerol as a plasticizer. The solubility of the film was increased with the increase of glycerol content. Tensile and puncture strength of the starch film were increased with the decrease of the glycerol content. After the films were buried under the ground for 2 weeks, they were degraded by 55-58 %. This degradation increased with the increasing of glycerol content. These results indicated that the cassava starch films were biodegradable which could help reduce the amount of the non-biodegradable packaging waste.
Alves, V. D., Mali, S., Bele´ia, A. & Grossmann, M. V. E. (2007). Effect of glycerol and amylose enrichment on cassava starch film properties. Journal of Food Engineering. 78, 941-946.
Briston, J. H. (1988). Plastic Films (3rd ed.), Wiley, New York.
Chillo, S., Flores, S., Mastromatteo, M., Conte, A., Gerschenson, L. & Nobile, M. A. D. (2008). Influence of glycerol and chitosan on tapioca starch-based edible film properties. Journal of Food Engineering. 88, 159-168.
Ekthamasut, K. & Akesowan, A. (2001). Effect of vegetable oils on physical characteristics of edible konjac films. AU Journal of Technology. 5, 73-78.
Guilbert, S. (1986). Technology and application of edible film. Food packaging and preservation theory and practice. London. Elsevier Application Science Publisher.
Gontard, N., Guillbert, S & Cuq, J. L. (1993). Water and glycerol as plasticizers affect mechanical and water vapour barrier properties of an edible film. The Journal of Food Science. 55(1), 206-211.
Jiménez, A., Fabra, M. J., Talens, P. & Chiralt, Amparo. (2012). Edible and biodegradable starch films: A Review. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 5, 2058-2076.
Laohakunjit, N. & Noomhorm, A. (2004). Effect of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of rice starch film. Starch/Starke. 56(8), 348-356.
Li, M. & Lee, T. C. (1996). Effect of cysteine on the functional properties and microstructure of wheat flour extrudates. Journal of Agricultural and FoodChemistry. 44, 1871-1880.
Lieberman, E. R. & Gilbert, S. G. (1973). Gas Permeationof collagen films as affected by cross-linkage, moisture, and plasticizer content. Journal of Polymer Science. 41, 33-43.
Mali, S., Sakanaka, L. S., Yamashita, F. & Grossmann, M. V. E. (2005). Water sorption and mechanical properties of cassava starch films and their relation to plasticizing effect. Carbohydrate Polymers. 60, 283-289.
Muller, C. M. O., Yamashita, F. & Laurindo, J. B. (2008). Evaluation of the effects of glycerol and sorbitol concentration and water activity on the water barrier properties of cassava starch films through a solubility approach. Carbohydrate
Polymers. 72, 82-87.
Noiduang, P. Thawla, L. & Pa-ai, O. (2015). Study on edible film production from chinese water chestnuts starch. Agricultural Science Journal. 46(3), 665-668.
Oh, J.H., Wang, B., Field, P. D. & Aglan, H. A. (2004). Characteristics of edible films made from dairy protein and zein hydrolysate cross-linked with transglutaminase. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 39, 287-294.
Pena, D.C. & Torres, J.A. (1991). Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate permeability of an edible methylcellulose-palmitic acid films water activity and pH effects. Journal of Food Science. 56, 497-499.
Ryu, S. Y., Rhim, J. W., Roh, H. J. & Kim, S. S. (2002). Preparation and physical properties of zein-coated High-amylose corn starch film. Lebensm-Wiss. U.-Technol. 35, 680-686.
Sierakowski, M.-R., Freitas, R. A., Paula, R. C., Feitosa, J. P. A. & Rocha, S. (2004). Amylose contents, rheological properties and gelatinization kinetics of yam (Dioscorea alata) and cassava (Manihot utilissima) starches. Carbohydrate
Polymers. 55, 3-8.
Phranakhon Rajabhat Research Journal (Science and Technology) 75 Vol.14 No.2 (July - December 2019)
Tsou, C. H., Suen, M. C. , Yao, W. H., Yeh, J. T., Wu, C. S., Tsou, C. Y., Chiu, S. H., Chen, J. C., Wang, R. Y., Lin, S. M., Hung, W. S., Guzman, M. D., Hu, C. C. & Lee, K. R. (2014). Preparation and characterization of bioplastic-based
green renewable composites from tapioca with acetyl tributyl citrate as a plasticizer. Materials. 7, 5617-5632.
Veiga, S. P. (2007). Sucrose and inverted sugar as plasticizer effect on cassava starch-gelatin film mechanical properties hydrophilicity and water activity. Food Chemistry. 103, 255-262.