Main Article Content
This study aimed to develop a Virtual Reality cognitive training program (VR-CTP) for enhancingthe spatial intelligence in the primary school students, and to investigate the effect of the developed VR-CTP by comparing the accuracy score, response time, and absolute power before and after training program, between gender and general intelligence level after training. Sixty-eight students attending at Grade 5 of AnubanChanthaburi School in academic year 2018 took part in the study. They were screened into 4 groups (17 experimental per groups). The experimental group underwent the VR-CTP training for 12 times (10 minutes each time). The Paper Folding Test, Card Rotation Test and Mental Rotation Test were used to collect absolute powerof the band theta, alpha, low beta and high beta at the frontal, parietal, and temporal brain area. Data were analyzed by using the Repeated ANOVA and 2-way MANOVA.
The results showed that VR-CTP consists of 2 training activities (Maze Walker and Construction Worker in 6 levels. After training with the VR-CTP, the EEG absolute power for alpha of the experiment group was increased in all spatial intelligence tests at the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, especially in the female group. Meanwhile, the students with a high level of general intelligence had a lower level of alpha at the frontal lobe, and an interaction effect between gender and general intelligence level was also found, revealing the benefits of continuous practice with the VR-CTP.
Anderson, L. (2014). Visual-Spatial Ability: Important in STEM, Ignored in Gifted Education. Roeper Review, 36(2), 114-121.
Arce, C., Ramos, J., Guevara, M., &Corsi-Cabrera, M. (1995). Effect of spatial ability and sex on eeg power in high school students. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 20, 11-20.
Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom(3rded.). Virginia: Alexandria.
Armstrong, D. M. (2018). Universals: An opinionated introduction. Abingdon: Routledge.
Christou, E. A., Rudroff, T., Enoka, J. A., Meyer, F., &Enoka, R. M. (2007). Discharge rate during low-force isometric contractions influences motor unit coherence below 15 Hz but not motor unit synchronization. Exp Brain Res, 178(1), 285–295.
Connell, M. L. (1998). Technology in constructivist mathematics classrooms. In McNeil, S., Price, J., Boger-Mehall. S., Robin, B., & Willis, J. (Eds.), Proceedingsof society for information technology & teacher education international conference 1988 (pp. 601-604).
Freeman, S., Eddy, S.L., McDonough, M., Smith, M.K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., &Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 111(23), 8410–8415.
Gardner, H. (2011). Frame of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences (3rd Ed.). New York: BasicBooks.
Hoffler, T. N. (2010). Spatial ability: Its influence on learning with visualization a meta-analytic review. Education Psychology Review, 22(3), 245-269.
Huang, H., Liaw, S., &Lai, C. (2016). Exploring learner acceptance of the use of virtual reality in medical education. InteractLearnEnviron,24(1), 3–19.
Hunt, E. (2011). Where are we? Where are we going? Reflections on the Current and Future State of Research on Intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg & S.B. Kaufman (Eds.) Handbook of Intelligence. New York: Cambridge U. Press.
Jahn, G., Wendt, J., Lotze, M., Papenmeier, F., & Huff, M. (2012). Brain activation during spatial updating and attentive tracking of moving targets.Brain and Cognition, 78(2), 105-113.
Jausovec, N., &Jausovec, K. (2012). Working memory training: Improving intelligence-changing brain activity. Brain and Cognition, 79(2), 96–106.
Kimura, D. (2000). Sex and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Malenka, R. C. (2002). Synaptic plasticity. In Davis, K. L., Charney, D., Coyle, J. T., &Nemeroff, C. (Eds.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 147-158). Brentwood, Tennessee: American Colledge of Neuropsychopharmacology.
McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S. (2014). Research in education: Evidence-based inquiry (7th,Pearson new international ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Rettinger, D. A., Shah, P., & Hegarty, M. (2001). How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(4), 621-640.
Motes, M. A., Malach, R., &Kozhevnikov, M. (2008). Object-processing neural efficiency differentiates object from spatial visualizers. NeuroReport, 19, 1727-1731.
Neisser, U. (1996). Remembering as doing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 203-204.
Neuburger, S., Jansen, P., Heil, M., &Quaiser-Pohl, C. (2011). Gender differences in pre-adolescent’s mental rotation performance: Do they depend on grade and stimulus type?.Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1238–1242.
OECD. (2016). Pisa 2015 results in focus. Paris: OECD.
Polanía, R., Nitsche, M. A., Korman, C., Batsikadze, G., & Paulus, W. (2012). The importance of timing in segregated theta phase-coupling for cognitive performance. Current Biology, 22(14), 1314-1318.
Ramos, J., & Sanchez, L. M. (2011). Gender difference in EEG coherent activity before and after training navigation skills I virtual environments. Mexico, 37(6), 68-75.
Reilly, D., Neuman, D. L., & Andrews, G. (2017). Gender Differences in Spatial Ability: Implications for STEM Education and Approaches to Reducing the Gender Gap for Parents and Educators. Visual-spatial Ability in STEM Education,195-224.
Reis, J. (2016). Gross agricultural output: A quantitative, unified perspective, 1500-1850. In: An Agrarian History of Portugal, 1000-2000. Economic development on the European frontier, eds, Dulce Freire and Pedro Lains. Leiden: Brill, 166-196.
Sattler, J. M. (2001). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications. La Mesa, California: Jerome M. Sattler.
Scholl, B. J., &Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1998). Tracking multiple items through occlusion: Clues to visual objecthood. Cognitive Psychology, 38(1), 259-290.
Sears, C. R., &Pylyshyn, Z. W. (2000). Multiple object tracking and attentional processing.Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54(1), 1-14.
Shin, D. H. (2017). The role of affordance in the experience of virtual reality learning: Technological and affective affordances in virtual reality. Telematics andInformatics,34(8),1826-1836.
Sorby, S. A. (1999). Developing 3-d spatial visualization skills. Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 63(2), 21-32.
Tomasi. D., Ernst, T., Caparelli, E. C., & Chang, L. (2004). Practice-induced changes of brain function during visual attention: A paramericfmri study at 4 tesla. Neuroimage, 23(4), 1414-1421.
Uttal, D. H., Meadow, N. G., Tipton, E., Hand, L. L., Alden, A. R., Warren, C., et al. (2013a). The malleability of spatial skills: A meta analysis of training studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139(2), 352-402.
Verhaegh, J., Fontijn, W., & Jacobs, A. (2008).On the benefits of tangible interfaces for educational games. Canada: Banff.
Xu, Y., & Chun, M. M. (2009). Selecting and perceiving multiple visual objects. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(4), 167-174.