The Prevalence of Oportunistic Bacterial Pathogens the Isolated from Clinical Specimens of Patients at Roi Et Hospital in 2017

Main Article Content

Nuntiput Putthanachote Siriporn Munjit Narin Prathumkhan Narongchai Sangsa Satchawan Phuangsriken Jumrusluk Charoensaen Orathai PongKaew Wongklang Gudwongsa Pongdech Sarakran Kumaleeporn Treesorn Paphatchaya Kucharin

Abstract

Background and Objective: the oportunistic bacterial infection is the majority problem on medical and public health in Thailand and others countries worldwide. At present the problem of anti-microbial resistant are increases. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oportunistic bacterial infection the isolations from clinical specimens of patients at Roi Et Hospital.


Methods: this study was descriptive study, all data were clinical specimens culture of respiratory tract system, urinary tract system and blood stream. The data were retrieved from medical recorded and data from department of Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Roi Et Hospital, Roi Et Province during January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017. The descriptive statistics were used for all data analysis.  


Results: the total number of bacterial isolation from clinical specimens of patients at Roi Et Hospital during January 1 2017 to December 31, 2017 were 15, 367 isolations. The most common bacterial isolation found were E. coli 16.31%, A. baumannii 15.10 %, K. pneumoniae 13.45%, and  P. aeruginosa 11.22%. The total respiratory tract isolation were  5,968 isolates  and the most common bacterial found were  A.baumannii 27.58%,  K. pneumoniae 21.26%, P. aeruginosa 20.69 %, and E. coli 5.53%. The total urinary tract isolation were  3,266 isolates and the most common were found E. coli 34.91%,  Enterococcus spp. 29.52%,  K. pneumonia 10.47%, and P. aeruginosa 6.12%.  The total blood stream isolation were 4,082 isolates and the most common found were Coagulase Negative Staphylococci 27.14%,  E. coli 14.80 %,  B. pseudomallei 8.79%, and  S. aureus 8.21 %.


Conclusion: The total positive results from clinical specimen culture were 15, 367 isolations. The highest frequency isolations found were E.coli, A.baumannii, K.pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The respiratory tract and urinary tract system most commonly found were A.baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and      E. coli. The blood stream most commonly found were Coagulase Negative Staphylococci, E. coli,                     B. pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords

Article Details

Section
Original Articles

References

1. Pollack A. Doctors Struggle to Treat Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections. The New York Times [Internet]. 2010 Feb 26 [cited May 18, 2018]; Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/27/business/27germ.html
2. Lizioli A, Privitera G, Alliata E, Antonietta Banfi EM, Boselli L, Panceri ML, et al. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in Italy: result from the Lombardy survey in 2000. J Hosp Infect 2003; 54: 141–8.
3. Pancharti P, Leksawas N, Sukamwang K, Tantisiriwat W, Danchaivijitr S. Impacts of nosocomial infection among elderly patients in Inburi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 2005; 88: S83-85.
4. Nosocomiale infecties in België, deel 2: impact op Mortaliteit en Kosten [Internet]. [cited May 18, 2018]. Available from: /en/node/792
5. Rosenthal VD, Maki DG, Jamulitrat S, Medeiros EA, Todi SK, Gomez DY, et al. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary for 2003-2008, issued June 2009. Am J Infect Control 2010; 38: 95-104.e2.
6. Danchaivijitr S, Dhiraputra C, Santiprasitkul S, Judaeng T. Prevalence and impacts of nosocomial infection in Thailand 2001. J Med Assoc Thai 2005; 88: S1–9.
7. Danchaivijitr S, Judaeng T, Sripalakij S, Naksawas K, Plipat T. Prevalence of nosocomial infection in Thailand 2006. J-Med Assoc Thai 2007; 90: 1524.
8. Dejsirilert S, Suankratay C, Trakulsomboon S, Thongmali O, Sawanpanyalert P, Aswapokee N, et al. National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance, Thailand (NARST) data among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Thailand from 2000 to 2005. J Med Assoc Thai 2009; 92: S68-75.
9. Petdachai W. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a newborn intensive care unit. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004; 35: 724–9.
10. Bayani M, Siadati S, Rajabnia R, Taher AA. Drug Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from ICU, Babol, Northern Iran. Int J Mol Cell Med 2013; 2: 204–9.
11. Gurung J, Khyriem AB, Banik A, Lyngdoh WV, Choudhury B, Bhattacharyya P. Association of biofilm production with multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2013; 17: 214–8.
12. Rhodes D, Cheng AC, McLellan S, Guerra P, Karanfilovska D, Aitchison S, et al. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections associated with peripheral intravenous cannulae: successful implementation of a care bundle at a large Australian health service. J Hosp Infect 2016; 94: 86-91
13. Nuvials X, Palomar M, Alvarez-Lerma F, Olaechea P, Otero S, Uriona S, et al. Primary bacteriemia and catheter related bloodstream infection in patients admitted to ICU. risk factors associated with mortality. ENVIN-HELICS registry data. Intensive Care Med Exp 2015; 3: A889.
14. Sader HS, Castanheira M, Flamm RK, Mendes RE, Farrell DJ, Jones RN. Ceftazidime/avibactam tested against Gram-negative bacteria from intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients, including those with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2015; 46: 53–9.
15. Tumbarello M, De Pascale G, Trecarichi EM, Spanu T, Antonicelli F, Maviglia R, et al. Clinical outcomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in intensive care unit patients. Intensive Care Med 2013; 39: 682–92.
16. Nathwani D, Raman G, Sulham K, Gavaghan M, Menon V. Clinical and economic consequences of hospital-acquired resistant and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2014; 3: 32.
17. Djordjevi Z, Gajovi O, Mijailovi Z, Ili A, Stoli R. [Risk factors of nosocomial infections caused by piperacillin-tazobactam resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa]. Srp Arh Celok Lek 2013; 141: 640–7.
18. Ryakitimbo A, Philemon R, Mazuguni F, Msuya L. Prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urinary tract infection among children with cerebral palsy, Moshi, Tanzania. Pediatr Health Med Ther 2018; 9: 59–65.
19. Anígilájé EA, Bitto TT. Prevalence and Predictors of Urinary Tract Infections among Children with Cerebral Palsy in Makurdi, Nigeria. Int J Nephrol 2013; 2013: 937268.
20. Lin S-H, Kuo P-H, Hsueh P-R, Yang P-C, Kuo S-H. Sputum bacteriology in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan with an emphasis on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Respirol Carlton Vic 2007; 12: 81–7.
21. El-Sheikh SM, El-Assouli SM, Mohammed KA, Albar M. Bacteria and viruses that cause respiratory tract infections during the pilgrimage (Haj) season in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Trop Med Int Health TM IH 1998; 3: 205–9.
22. Alamoudi OS. Bacterial infection and risk factors in outpatients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 2-year prospective study. Respirol Carlton Vic 2007; 12: 283–7.
23. Lewnard JA, Givon-Lavi N, Huppert A, Pettigrew MM, Regev-Yochay G, Dagan R, et al. Epidemiological Markers for Interactions Among Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus in Upper Respiratory Tract Carriage. J Infect Dis 2016 15;213:1596–605.
24. Numazaki K, Chiba S, Umetsu M, Tanaka T, Yoshimura H, Kuniya Y, et al. Etiological agents of lower respiratory tract infections in Japanese children. Vivo Athens Greece 2004; 18: 67–71.
25. Pan H, Cui B, Huang Y, Yang J, Ba-Thein W. Nasal carriage of common bacterial pathogens among healthy kindergarten children in Chaoshan region, southern China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatr 2016; 16: 161.
26. Ko FWS, Ng TKC, Li TST, Fok JPC, Chan MCH, Wu AKL, et al. Sputum bacteriology in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD in Hong Kong. Respir Med 2005; 99: 454–60.
27. Ko FWS, Lam RKY, Li TST, Fok JPC, Chan MCH, Ng TKC, et al. Sputum bacteriology in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and concomitant pneumonia in Hong Kong. Intern Med J 2005; 35: 661–7.
28. Mendes C, Marin ME, Quiñones F, Sifuentes-Osornio J, Siller CC, Castanheira M, et al. Antibacterial resistance of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens recovered from patients in Latin America: results from the PROTEKT surveillance study (1999-2000). Braz J Infect Dis Off Publ Braz Soc Infect Dis 2003; 7: 44–61.
29. Haque R, Akter ML, Salam MA. Prevalence and susceptibility of uropathogens: a recent report from a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. BMC Res Notes 2015; 8: 416.
30. Linhares I, Raposo T, Rodrigues A, Almeida A. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000-2009). BMC Infect Dis 2013;13: 19.
31. Costa T, Linhares I, Ferreira R, Neves J, Almeida A. Frequency and Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Implicated in Community Urinary Tract Infections in North Aveiro Between 2011 and 2014. Microb Drug Resist Larchmt N 2018; 24: 493–504.
32. Lo DS, Rodrigues L, Koch VHK, Gilio AE. Clinical and laboratory features of urinary tract infections in young infants. J Bras Nefrol 2018; 40: 66-72.
33. Hamdan HZ, Kubbara E, Adam AM, Hassan OS, Suliman SO, Adam I. Urinary tract infections and antimicrobial sensitivity among diabetic patients at Khartoum, Sudan. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2015; 14: 26.
34. Opilla M. Epidemiology of bloodstream infection associated with parenteral nutrition. Am J Infect Control 2008; 36: S173.e5-8.
35. Tang CQ, Li JQ, Shou BM, Pan BH, Chen TS, Xiao YQ, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of bloodstream infections in 177 severe burn patients from an industrial disaster: a multicentre retrospective study. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018; 24: 199. e1-199.e7.
36. Ammann RA, Laws HJ, Schrey D, Ehlert K, Moser O, Dilloo D, et al. Bloodstream infection in paediatric cancer centres--leukaemia and relapsed malignancies are independent risk factors. Eur J Pediatr 2015; 174: 675–86.
37. Takeshita N, Kawamura I, Kurai H, Araoka H, Yoneyama A, Fujita T, et al. Unique characteristics of community-onset healthcare- associated bloodstream infections: a multi-centre prospective surveillance study of bloodstream infections in Japan. J Hosp Infect 2017; 96: 29–34.
38. Mitt P, Adamson V, Lõivukene K, Lang K, Telling K, Päro K, et al. Epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in Estonia. J Hosp Infect 2009; 71: 365–70.