Main Article Content
Background and Objective: Central arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is regarded as the gold standard marker of central arterial stiffening. However, there is limited information available on the values of cfPWV in Thai population. Therefore, the current study aimed to measure the normal values of cfPWV in healthy Thais.
Methods: A total of 163 identified healthy subjects (82 female, 81 male), aged 20-60 years were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into 4 age groups with 10-year intervals. Blood pressures of peripheral and central arteries and cfPWV were measured non-invasively by using the applanation tonometry.
Results: The systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure of central artery increased progressively with age. The mean values of cfPWV in men and women were increased with age. Moreover, cfPWV was correlated with age and central blood pressure.
Conclusion: The present study provides normal values of cfPWV in healthy, normotensive and non-metabolic disorder subjects. A pronounced increase in cfPWV was demonstrated in healthy Thais aged over 50 years.
2. WHO. Statistical Thailand, Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD) Country Profiles. Geneva: Switzerland; 2017.
3. Lakatta EG, Levy D. Arterial and cardiac aging: major shareholders in cardiovascular disease enterprises: Part I: aging arteries: a "set up" for vascular disease. Circulation 2003; 107: 139-46.
4. Steppan J, Barodka V, Berkowitz DE, Nyhan D. Vascular stiffness and increased pulse pressure in the aging cardiovascular system. Cardiol Res Pract 2011; 2011: 263585.
5. Franklin SS, Jacobs MJ, Wong ND, L'Italien GJ, Lapuerta P. Predominance of isolated systolic hypertension among middle-aged and elderly US hypertensives: analysis based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Hypertension 2001; 37: 869-74.
6. Amery A, Fagard R, Guo C, Staessen J, Thijs L. Isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: an epidemiologic review. Am J Med 1991; 90: 64S-70S.
7. Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R, Gautier I, Laloux B, Guize L, et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2001; 37: 1236-41.
8. Caluwe R, De Vriese AS, Van Vlem B, Verbeke F. Measurement of pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and central pulse pressure in atrial fibrillation: a proof of concept study. J Am Soc Hypertens 2018; 12: 627-32.
9. Vlachopoulos C, Aznaouridis K, Stefanadis C. Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55: 1318-27.
10. Rezaianzadeh A, Namayandeh SM, Sadr SM. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Versus International Diabetic Federation Definition of Metabolic Syndrome, Which One is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease? Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2012; 3: 552-8.
11. Díaz A, Galli C, Tringler M, Ramírez A, Cabrera Fischer EI. Reference values of pulse wave velocity in healthy people from an urban and rural argentinean population. Int J Hypertens 2014; 2014: 653239.
12. Van Bortel LM, Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Chowienczyk P, Cruickshank JK, De Backer T, et al. Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. J Hypertens 2012; 30: 445-8.
13. Diaz A, Zocalo Y, Bia D, Wray S, Fischer EC. Reference intervals and percentiles for carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in a healthy population aged between 9 and 87 years. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2018; 20: 659-71.
14. Logan JG, Barksdale DJ. Pulse wave velocity in Korean American men and women. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2013; 28: 90-6.
15. Greenwald SE. Aging of the conduit arteries. Journal of Pathology 2007; 211: 157-72.
16. Nilsson PM. Hemodynamic Aging as the Consequence of Structural Changes Associated with Early Vascular Aging (EVA). Aging Dis 2014; 5: 109-13.