Science & Technology Asia <p class="Default">Science &amp; Technology Asia (formerly the International Journal of Science and Technology Thammasat), first published in 1996, is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal containing original research articles, review articles and short communications in areas related to science and technology. Science &amp; Technology Asia is a forum through which scientists and experts in the fields of science and technology share and discuss their quality research. Original research articles, as well as review articles and brief papers in multidisciplinary scientific and technological fields are included in the journal.</p> <p class="Default">The journal welcomes contributions in the following areas:</p> <p class="Default"><img title="\begin{array}{ll} \text{1.} &amp; \textbf{Physical sciences:} \\ &amp; \text{Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Statistics.} \\ \text{2.} &amp; \textbf{Engineering:} \\ &amp; \text{Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering,} \\ &amp; \text{Environmental Engineering, Computer Engineering and information technology.} \\ \text{3.} &amp; \textbf{Biological sciences:} \\ &amp; \text{Biology, Zoology, Botany, Genetics, Agriculture and Ecology.} \end{array}" src="\begin{array}{ll}&amp;space;\text{1.}&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\textbf{Physical&amp;space;sciences:}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Chemistry,&amp;space;Physics,&amp;space;Mathematics&amp;space;and&amp;space;Statistics.}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;\text{2.}&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\textbf{Engineering:}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Electrical&amp;space;Engineering,&amp;space;Chemical&amp;space;Engineering,&amp;space;Civil&amp;space;Engineering,}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Environmental&amp;space;Engineering,&amp;space;Computer&amp;space;Engineering&amp;space;and&amp;space;information&amp;space;technology.}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;\text{3.}&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\textbf{Biological&amp;space;sciences:}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Biology,&amp;space;Zoology,&amp;space;Botany,&amp;space;Genetics,&amp;space;Agriculture&amp;space;and&amp;space;Ecology.}&amp;space;\end{array}">&nbsp;</p> <p class="Default">The journal publishes 4 issues a year: No. 1, January-March; No. 2, April-June; No. 3, July-September; and No. 4, October-December.</p> <p class="Default">Science &amp; Technology Asia is currently indexed in national and international online and electronic databases, including the Thai-Journal Citation Index (TCI), the ASEAN CSE Index (ACI), the Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB) and Scopus.</p> <p class="Default">This journal has adopted a double-blind reviewing policy whereby both the referees and author(s) remain anonymous throughout the process.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Thammasat University en-US Science & Technology Asia 2586-9000 Analysis of Chemical Properties and Gamma - Oryzanol Content in Luem Pua Rice Bran Oil (Oryza sativa L.) <p><span class="fontstyle0">The study investigated the soxhlet extraction of Leum Pua rice bran oil (</span><span class="fontstyle2">Oryza sativa </span><span class="fontstyle0">L.) using 12 hours of extraction time, with comparison of product with hexane and ethanol as solvent. The chemical properties and gamma-oryzanol content in the rice bran oil were investigated. The results showed that the highest yield of rice bran oil was obtained from extraction using 70:30 %v/v ethanol:water solvent with percent yield of 21.89±0.35 g<br>(mean+SD)/100g of dry rice bran) and maximum amount of gamma-oryzanol of 0.4647 mg/L of rice bran oil. The chemical properties and gamma-oryzanol content of Leum Pua rice bran oil indicates acceptable quality of oil when stored for a long time causing foul odour due to lipid peroxidation.</span></p> Wilaiporn Pongpian Sasikarn Panpraneecharoen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 1 5 Effect of Ammonium Sulfate on the Porous Creating of Regenerated Cellulose Hydrogel from Palm Oil Trunk <p>Oil palm is an oil plant which is of great importance for both the Thai and the world economies. Oil palm trees have a life span of approximately 20-25 years before a gradual erosion of yield sets in. Oil palm trunk (OPT) is an agricultural residue waste from oil palm re-plantation which is rich in cellulose but utilized ineffectively. One way for OPT utilization is cellulose hydrogel production. In this study, cellulose hydrogel was prepared by dissolving cellulose from OPT with 7% (w/v) of lithium chloride in dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) to create a porous hydrogel by 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10% (w/v) of (NH4)2SO4 for 3, 5 and 10 minutes. After that, it was found that soaking cellulose hydrogel in 8% (w/v) of (NH4)2SO4 solution for 5 minutes created light-browed cellulose hydrogel with an average Shore A hardness of 41 ± 1.13 and a maximum swelling equal to 90%. The chemical functional group and cross-section morphology of cellulose hydrogel were determined using Attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.</p> Nantharat Phruksaphithak Anuwat Sukthong Warintorn Muanpannarai Atima Theptong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 6 14 Erector Spinae Muscle Activity during Lifted People with Two Persons in Lifting Phase of Manual Human Handling (MHH) <p>The objective of this study was to determine the activity of erector spinae muscle in four techniques of lifting phase of manual human handling; two-handed seat carry, four-handed seat carry, fore-and-aft carry and chair carry.&nbsp; Thirty-two (16 couples) healthy young men lifted subjects weighing 60±5 kg from table heights of 50 cm and 100 cm.&nbsp; Surface electromyography was used to evaluate lumbar erector spinae activity during lifting.&nbsp; The four-handed seat carry technique had the highest average of lumbar erector spinae activity both from table height 50 cm and 100 cm.&nbsp; This may be due to more trunk flexion movement than in other techniques.&nbsp; The lowest activity of lumbar erector spinae was found in fore-and-aft carry and chair carry techniques.&nbsp; Moreover, lifting from table height 50 cm had more lumbar erector spinae muscle activity than lifting from table height 100 cm in 3 techniques (two-handed seat carry, four-handed seat carry and fore-and-aft carry).&nbsp; The highest activity of lumbar erector spinae muscle in the four-handed seat carry technique indicated risk of low back pain during lifting, especially lifting people from a table height of 50 cm.&nbsp;&nbsp; Lower lumbar erector spinae muscle activity in fore-and-aft carry and chair carry techniques indicated safer they are safer techniques for lifting.</p> Chanya Jiemjai Santhanee Khruakhorn Patcharee Kooncumchoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 15 19 Non-Scanning Acquisition Technique for Extracting Small Depth Difference on the Area of Interest <p><span class="fontstyle0">The guidelines for selecting the appropriate surface acquisition method are created for capturing the geometric shape of small objects ( less than 5 cm height) that contains minor details such as small depth difference on the area of interest. Scanning (3D laser scanner) and non-scanning (a mobile phone camera) techniques were applied in this study. The results are compared using both qualitative and quantitative measurements. The non-scanning technique by a mobile phone camera is almost 80 times less expensive than the 3D laser scan while generating similar 3D models with acceptable accuracy within 1.5 mm of the master object and within 1 mm error between the two methods. The average total time used in the non-scanning is less than half of the scanning one. Detail of small depth differences on the area of interest is better captured by non-scanning one with the application of the proposed guidelines. General capabilities and limitations of both techniques, such as the object surface types, color, surface preparation and symmetry that can affect the resulting 3D model of both acquisition methods are also discussed and tabulated.</span></p> Suchada Rianmora Maroay Phlernjai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 20 33 Using Adaptive Integral Gain for Overshoot Reduction in PID Control Systems <p>This paper examines intrinsic characteristics of the integral control of a PID controller, and points out one that can cause excessive overshoot when the reference signal changes abruptly. Reasons for not totally relying on the derivative control to suppress overshoot are discussed, and then augmentation of an adaptive integral gain to an existing PID controller is proposed. The associated smooth adaptive law for the gain is presented, with the correspondingly allowable upper and lower bounds that guarantee input-to-state stability for the system of interest. Effectiveness, simplicity, and desirable properties of the proposed adaptive integral gain are clearly shown in two design examples. Numerical simulations show that maximum overshoot can be reduced by approximately 50%, without upsetting rise time.</p> Pinit Ngamsom ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 34 44 Comparatively Rapid Screening Tests for Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Paired with Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD), Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) and Real-Time Turbidimetry <p><span class="fontstyle0">Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects hepatocytes and causes acute and chronic hepatitis that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both animals and humans. Early detection of HBV infection assists in monitoring the patient’s response to anti-HBV therapy, blood donation screening, and disease management, control and eradication. </span><span class="fontstyle0">This research focused on development of LAMP assay combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD), gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and real-time turbidimetry for screening of the hepatitis B virus. Analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, accuracy and predictive value of each technique were determined and compared to conventional PCR and real-time PCR (gold standard method).</span>&nbsp;<span class="fontstyle0">The analytical sensitivity of LAMP-LFD and LAMP-AuNPs was 1.24x10<span class="fontstyle0" style="font-size: 7pt;">1 </span>copies /mL, LAMP-real-time turbidimetry was 1.24x10<span class="fontstyle0" style="font-size: 7pt;">2 </span>copies/mL, while that of conventional PCR was 1.24x10<span class="fontstyle0" style="font-size: 7pt;">4 </span>copies/mL. Examination of the analytical specificity of all LAMP-based combinations and conventional PCR showed no cross-reactivity with HCV or human plasma. Upon exploration of one hundred unknown samples, in comparison to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of LAMP-based assays were 100% and 90%, respectively. The accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the LAMP-based assays were 98%, 97.56%, and 100%, respectively. While that of conventional PCR were 60%, 100%, 68%, 100% and 38% of diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV, respectively. LAMP-based assays need to be simplified in terms of achieving single-step diagnosis using one master mix solution that is suitable for a point-of-care diagnostic test. <br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;"> </span></p> Suphitcha Augkarawaritsawong Surangrat Srisurapanon Sirirat Wachiralurpan Supatra Areekit Kosum Chansiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 45 57 Determination of Collagen Content and Antioxidant Activity in Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Extracts <p><span class="fontstyle0">This study investigated the phytochemical screening and biological activity of </span><span class="fontstyle2">Sesbania grandiflora </span><span class="fontstyle0">( L. ), locally named as “ Khae ban”, bark extractions, which were soft and hard barks. The phytochemical screening was carried out on the extraction of each particular bark with 95% Hexane, 95% Ethyl acetate, and 95% Ethanol for Alkaloids, Steroids, Tannins, Flavonoids, and Terpenoids. The anti-inflammatory activity was also evaluated for scavenging of nitric oxide free radicals ( NO), and the collagen extent was determined by Hydroxyproline assay. The results from phytochemical screening indicated that the 95% of ethanol extraction of hard bark provided a more positive result than those of others. The hard bark’ s extraction showed IC</span><span class="fontstyle0" style="font-size: 7pt;">50 </span><span class="fontstyle0">value ranging from 45.83 ± 14.95 to 254.86 ± 7.58 microgram per milliliter, which was a significantly statistical difference (P</span><span class="fontstyle3">&lt;</span><span class="fontstyle0">0.05) from scavenging of nitric oxide free radicals (NO), and higher activity than that of soft bark. However, the highest activity of soft bark’s extraction was found in 95% of Ethyl acetate with IC50 value of 470.24 ± 3.63 microgram per milliliter. In hard bark’ s extractions, the 95% ethanol extraction not only showed the highest activity (IC50 value of 45.85 ± 47.78 microgram per milliliter), but at the low concentration of extraction had collagen content of 49. 89 microgram per milliliter, which was higher than that in other solvents. This research indicated the Khae ban’s hard bark extraction in 95% of ethanol and potentially able to be developed as a cosmeceutical product or mouth sore product treating mouth ulcer.</span></p> Sathaporn Satsue Wilailak Suksai Kanaporn Tansriprapasiri Kritsana Pachuen Napasorn Kummeekorn Watcharin Phuttasanbundid Sunisa Sanlad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 58 65 Intron Length Polymorphism in Candidate Genes for Secondary Growth and its Application in Diversity Assessment of Amazonian Accessions of Hevea brasiliensis <p>Gene-specific markers are important tools in genetic analysis, allowing direct estimation of functional diversity. The goal of this study was to develop intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers from candidate genes associated with the secondary growth related traits that underpin the economics of rubber tree cultivation. We performed a BLAST analysis of Eucalyptus spp. expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for 23 candidate genes involved in secondary growth. From the total 142 shotgun contig hits, 531 introns were identified and 23 polymorphic ILP markers representing 23 candidate genes were selected for diversity assessment of 170 Amazonian accessions. The markers yielded 140 alleles with an average of 6.1 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.40 to 0.89, with an average of 0.64, indicating a high level of polymorphism in the markers. Analyses of population structure confirmed that the Amazonian accessions fell into two subpopulations grouped by catchment area, supporting previous reports. Among the 23 ILP markers analyzed, 11 revealed private alleles across Amazonian populations. The ILP markers developed in this study provide an immediate resource for the study of genetic diversity and establishment of marker-trait association for secondary growth traits in rubber trees.</p> Gunlayarat Bhusudsawang Kittipat Ukoskit ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 66 75