Science & Technology Asia <p>Science &amp; Technology Asia (formerly Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology), first published in 1996, is a peer-reviewed, open access journal containing original research articles, review articles, and short communications in the fields associated with science and technology. Science &amp; Technology Asia aims to be a forum through which scientists and experts in the fields of science and technology share and discuss their quality research work. Original research articles as well as review articles and short communications in multidisciplinary fields of science and technology are within the scope of the journal.</p> <p>The journal welcomes contributions in the following fields:</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1. Physical sciences: chemistry, physics, mathematics, and statistics.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2. Engineering: electrical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, environmental engineering, computer engineering; and information technology.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3. Biological sciences: biology, zoology, botany, genetics, agriculture, and ecology.</p> <p>The journal is published 4 issues per year; No.1 January-March, No.2 April-June, No.3 July-September, and No.4 October-December.</p> <p>Science &amp; Technology Asia is currently indexed in both national and international electronic/online databases, namely, Thai-Journal Citation Index (TCI) Tier 1, ASEAN Citation Index (ACI), and Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This journal has adopted a double-blind reviewing policy whereby both the referees and author(s) remain anonymous throughout the process.</p> Thammasat University en-US Science & Technology Asia 2586-9000 Removal of Free Fatty Acid from Used Palm Oil by Coffee Husk Ash <p>Reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) in used palm oil was determined after treatment of waste cooking oil with an adsorbent derived from coffee bean husk ash. Coffee husks were burned at 600 ºC for 12 hrs to obtain the adsorbent ash. Free fatty acid removal efficiency was optimized with respect to ash dosage, contact time and temperature. It was found that shaking ash (1 g) with waste palm oil (50 g) at 250 rpm and 30°C for 330 min gave the highest reduction in free fatty acids (FFA) (1966 mg/g). The adsorption isotherm was followed by Temkin (R2 = 0.9283) and Freundlich models (R2 = 0.9146). The adsorption of FFA at all adsorbent doses followed pseudo-second order kinetics (R2 = 0.9817-0.9999). A thermodynamic study revealed that the changes in enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were 89.07 kJ/mol, -0.25 kJ/mol.K and -5.15 to -12.17 kJ/mol, respectively. The coffee husk ash (5 g ash / 50 g waste palm oil) was found to reduce FFA by 100% at 30°C.</p> Vanida Chairgulprasert Porntip Madlah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 1 9 Adsorption of Direct Red 83 Using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Modified Water Hyacinth <p>As of present, water pollution that is caused by textile dyeing factories is one of the primary concerns in Thailand. Wastewater is contaminated with dyes, which results in an unpleasant watercolor. This research emphasized on the study of the adsorption of Direct Red 83 dye through the use of water hyacinths, which are abundant in number and can be easily obtained. Prior to the adsorption, water hyacinths were modified with cetyltrimetylammonium bromide (CTAB). The value of pH<sub>pzc</sub> of the adsorbent was 5.15. The adsorption was most effective at the pH value of 3. After increasing the amount of adsorbent and the temperature for water treatment, the percentage of dye removal would increase. However, if the concentration of dye increases, the percentage of dye removal would decrease. Upon the addition of electrolytes into the Wastewater that contained this particular type of dye, it was found that calcium salts lowered the percentage of dye removal to a greater extent than sodium salts. The process of adsorption was in accordance with Langmuir adsorption model, with q<sub>e </sub>value equals to 66.2252 milligrams per gram, K<sub>L </sub>value equals to 1.6064 liters per milligram, and R<sub>L </sub>value equals to 0.0062. Based on Dubinin-Radushkevich equation, the obtained E value represents physical adsorption. According to Redlich-Peterson equation, b<sub>R</sub> equals to 1.0797, which supported the fact that adsorption conformed to Langmuir model. This adsorption was in accordance with the model of a second-order reaction. When the temperature of the Wastewater increases, K<sub>2</sub> value would increase. When the concentration of dye increases, q<sub>e </sub>value would increase.</p> Chompoonut Chaiyaraksa Sarunya Chomphatho Sutthikarn Phaophuetphan Onnadda Champa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 10 21 Prevalence and Genotype of Giardia duodenalis of Asymptomatic Individual in a Child Care Center, Bangkok, Thailand <p><em>Giardia duodenalis </em>(<em>G. duodenalis</em>) is an intestinal flagellate protozoan, which infects in humans and animals. It can be causing giardiasis. The symptoms are acute or chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and dehydration. <em>G. duodenalis</em> can be transmitted by eating food or drinking water contaminated with infected stage cysts. Children who live and share facility in an orphanage are the high risk groups for infection. The objective of this paper is to study the prevalence and genotypes of <em>G. duodenalis </em>infection of asymptomatic individual in a child care center. This study was conducted in Mercy Centre orphanage, Klong Toey community. 289 stool samples were collected from children and childcare workers. Stool samples were extracted DNA. Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-<em>rDNA</em>) and glutamate dehydrogenase (<em>gdh</em>) genes were amplified using Nested PCR. PCR products of <em>gdh</em> gene were cut using <em>Nla</em>IV and <em>Rsa</em>I restriction enzymes. Genotypes were identified. The results of this study showed the prevalence of giardiasis in an orphanage, Klong Toey community, Thailand was 17.6% (51/289). PCR-RFLP analysis of 19 samples revealed that genotype AII was 63.2% (12/19), genotype BIV was 31.6% (6/19) and genotype BIII was 5.3% (1/19) respectively. Consequently, the study of prevalence and genotypes of <em>G. duodenalis</em> is beneficial for control planning of giardiasis in an orphanage, Klong Toey community.</p> Duangnate Pipatsatitpong Ratchaneewan Aunpad Suradej Siripattanapipong Mathirut Mungthin Saovanee Leelayoova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 22 27 A Direct Casting Method for the Fabrication of a Custom ScotchcastTM UCBL Foot Orthosis: A Case Study <p>The UCBL orthosis is a useful intervention for correction of foot pronation. An alternative fabrication method which utilized the 3M™ Scotchcast™ materials was evaluated in a single patient. A twenty-three-year-old patient with 10° of correctable calcaneus valgus was provided a UCBL made from 4mm polypropylene as well as a Scotchcast UCBL. Degree of valgus correction permitted by the Scotchcast was evaluated through goniometry by using the Rearfoot Angle (RFA) and tensile and compression force testing was performed to evaluate durability of both types of devices. The Scotchcast UCBL permitted acceptable valgus correction of the calcaneus. Tensile and compression testing revealed observable differences in hardness between the two orthosis. Use of Scotchcast as a direct cast to fabrication UCBL provided adequate correction for this patient. The Scotchcast UCBL is an inherently harder orthosis, yet it is less than half the price of a polypropylene UCBL. The unique use of this material has potential in resource limited environments as a method of reducing cost and fabrication time.</p> Sasithon Sukthomya Sirintip Kaewtip Gary Guerry Thapanik Pongprapai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 28 34 Ion-Interaction Chromatography with Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry Detection for the Analysis of Perchlorate in Drinking and Natural Waters <p>In this work, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of perchlorate in natural waters was developed. The method was based on ion-interaction (ion-pair) chromatography with the cationic ion-pairing reagent, hexamethonium bromide. Separation of the perchlorate was carried out using methanol and 1 mmol L<sup>-1</sup> hexamethonium bromide (10:90, v:v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.40 mL min<sup>-1</sup> and 100 µL injection volume. Under the optimal condition, the linearity range of perchlorate was 4 – 1000 µg L<sup>-1</sup> with a coefficient of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) of 0.9998. The detection limit was 2 µg L<sup>-1</sup>, within U.S. EPA requirements (EPA methods 314.1 and 331.0). This method was effectively applied to the quantitation of perchlorate in drinking water and natural water samples.</p> Warawut Tiyapongpattana Thanatcha Chaida Napaporn Youngvises Prapin Wilairat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 35 43 Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic, Bacterial and Viral Infections among Children with Gastrointestinal Illness in Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute <p>Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious gastrointestinal illnesses because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Thailand remain the major health problems in children. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal infections and risk factors among the children with gastrointestinal illnesses at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute during June 2016 to September 2016. Stool samples were collected from eighty two children and examined for parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections. Demographic data and risk factors were collected using standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the prevalence and demographic data. Risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of parasitic infections was 26.8% (22/82) whereas the prevalences of bacterial infections and viral infections were 14.5% (10/69) and 9.8% (6/61), respectively. The most intestinal parasitic, bacterial and viral infections were Blastocystis sp. (15.9%), Salmonella spp. (8.7%) and Rotavirus (9.8%), respectively. Binary logistic regression showed a significant association of intestinal infections in children who lived with many young children in the same house (odds ratio: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–6.9, p=0.045). These findings indicate that living conditions and personal hygiene of children should be improved in order to prevent these infectious gastrointestinal illnesses.</p> Nuchalita Awae Duangnate Pipatsatitpong Mathirut Mungthin Toon Ruang areerate Saovanee Leelayoova Ratchaneewan Aunpad Pawita Suwanvattana Unchana Thawornwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-24 2018-09-24 44 51 Effects of Radial Shockwave Therapy for Reducing Lower Back Pain Caused by Chronic Muscle Strain <p>The physiotherapy statistics from the Saraburi Hospital in Thailand show that patients with chronic lower back pain from muscle tearing have a higher tendency toward chronic pain, requiring continuous treatment. Most physiotherapists use radial shockwave therapy (RSWT) or radial pulse therapy to treat patients with chronic muscle tears. The aim of this study was to determine the immediate efficacy of RSWT on patients with lower back pain caused by chronic muscle strain. The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of RSWT in the treatment of chronic back muscle pain. The type of this research is quasi-experimental research study. The location is this study is Physical Therapy Clinic at the Saraburi Hospital in Thailand. The study participants had pain intensities of greater than 5 out of 10. The experimental group (30 patients) received RSWT to the lower back for 10-15 minutes once a week for 6 weeks. The control group (30 patients) received ultrasound (US) treatments to the lower back using the semi-static technique with gel, but without turning the machine on, for 15 minutes once a week for 6 weeks. Both groups were taught to avoid bending and carrying heavy loads, as well as the correct way to lift heavy objects. None of the patients received medications, injections, massages, or acupuncture. The pain levels in both groups at work and at rest were measured using a visual analog scale. The treatment results were evaluated and compared at the 1st, 4th, and 6th treatments. The patient satisfaction was assessed at the 6 treatments as follows: 1 = most, 2 = high, 3 = moderate, 4 = low, and 5 = minimum. The effects on daily life and career performance were measured before the study and at the end as follows: 1 = most, 2 = high, 3 = moderate, 4 = low, 5 = minimum, and 6 = no effect. A statistical analysis was performed on the demographic data as well as on the pain level comparisons. The results of the RSWT and US treatments were measured while the patients were resting and working at 1, 4, and 6 months. Twelve and 18 of the patients were cured, respectively. In the US groups, 6 patients were statistically significantly better at the <img title="1^{st}" src="^{st}">, <img title="4^{th}" src="^{th}">, and <img title="6^{th}" src="^{th}">&nbsp;treatments (but no cures). The post-treatment satisfaction was not significantly different between the RSWT and US groups. Consequently, the use of RSWT to treat chronic muscle strain can reduce pain immediately, and it can cure pain completely in some cases. Therefore, it should be used to treat more patients with chronic muscle strain. It should also be considered for use in chronic pain cases in which the patient does not respond to other conservative treatments.</p> Teerapong Sukhon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 52 60 Improvement of PM-10 Forecast Using ANFIS Model with an Integrated Hotspots <p>Due to the situation of increasingly severe PM-10 pollution that adverse affects on humans and environment across the globe, the purpose of this work is to implement the optimal PM-10 forecast model as a basis tool in process of planing/controlling air pollution and public awareness apply to Chiang Mai city and surrounding area, in Northern Thailand. Accurate and reliable forecasting model are our goal. Due to the fuzzy feature of PM-10 as well as the high correlated hotspot during open burning and forest fires season of this study area, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-based forecasting model has been statistically implemented as tool for daily mean PM-10 concentration estimation. For achieving more efficient and realistic model, the hotspot count among other meteorological parameters is utilized as the exogenous variable through the design and optimization. The forecasting performance evaluated in terms of the tradeoff between accuracy with regard to RMSE and MAE, computational complexity with respect to the multiplications per an execution, and reliablity through Akaike criterion information (AIC) is used to assess the forecast models. As forecasting results, the proposed ANFIS model with an integrated hotspots outperforms the other existing models.</p> Rati Wongsathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-25 2018-09-25 61 70