Main Article Content
Objective: To analyze the situation of occupational and environmental health among
garment workers working at community enterprises
Design: Descriptive study
Methodology: The study sample was 330 garment workers at community enterprises
in Sankampaeng District, Chiang Mai province. Interview forms were used to collect
data on (1) occupational health hazards; (2) health conditions related to risks; and
(3) working behaviour. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Three most signifcant workplace hazards were identifed. These included
ergonomic hazard which were awkward, repetitive postures, and prolonged sitting
(87.6-97.0%); chemical hazard which was fabric dust (96.4%); and psychosocial
hazards including inconsistent incomes and rush working (80.0-83.0%). Unsafe
working conditions were linked to working with sharp tools (97.0%) or electricity-powered
machines (96.1%). The most common work-related illnesses were musculoskeletal
disorders (90.0%), and work-induced stress caused by inconsistent incomes and rush
working (55.2%). Work-related injuries during the past three month were 18.2% which
were non-fatal injuries. The injury causation was related to sharp tools (81.3%).
Concerning working behaviour, more than half of the samples adopted personal
protective equipment, whilst nearly two-thirds checked their appliances’ conditions
Recommendations: In order to improve garment workers’ quality of working
life, it is suggested that occupational health team place high importance on health protection,
effectively communicate work-related risks to workers, develop management strategies
for musculoskeletal disorders and work-induced stress, and continuously promote safe
2. Kelly M, Strazdins L, Dellora T, Khamman S, Seubsman S, Sleigh AC. Thailand’s work and health transition. International Labour Review 2010; 149(3), 371-86.
3. Schneider F, Buehn A, Claudio E. Montenegro shadow economies all over the world: New estimates for 162 countries from 1999 to 2007 (Policy Research Working Paper 5356) [Internet] 2010 [cited 2017 November 1] Available from https://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc//igo/2010/458650.pdf
4. Thailand National Statistic Offce. The informal employment survey 2016 [Internet] 2009 [cited
2017 December 6] Available from https://service. nso.go.th (In Thai)
5. International Labour Organization [ILO]. Decent work and the informal economy (International Labour
Conference, 90th Session, Report VI). Geneva, Switzerland: Author; 2002.
6. Florey LS, Sandro G, Wilson MS. Macrosocial determinants of population health in the context of globalization. In Sandro Galea (ed.), Macrosocial determinants of population health. New York: Springer; 2007.
7. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacifc [ESCAP]. Improving vital statistics and cause
of death statistics: The experience of Thailand. Committee on Statistics: Bangkok; 2008.
8. Khan NR, Dipti TR, Ferdousi SK, Hossain MZ, Ferdousi S, Sony SA..., Islam MS. Occupational health hazards among workers of garment factors in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. JDMC 2015; 24(1),36-43.
9. Innama S. Informal labor force: Working life health and social care: A case study of sewing worker. JPHR 2010; 4, 379-92.
10. Silpasuwan P, Prayomyong S, Sujitrat D, Suwan-ampai P. Cotton dust exposure and resulting respiratory disorders among home-based garment workers. Workplace Health & Safety 2015; 64(3), 95-102.
11. WIEGO. Home-based workers [Internet] 2009 [cited 2017 November 10] Available from https:// www.weigo.org/wee/home-based-workers
12. Ahmed S, Raihan MZ. Health status of the female workers in the garment sector of Bangladesh. JEAS
2014; 4(1), 43-58.
13. Berberoglu U, Tokuc B. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders at two textile factories in Edirne, Turkey. BMJ 2013; 30(1), 23-7.
14. Islam LN, Sultana R, Feadous KJ. Occupational health of garment worker in Bangladesh. JE 2014;
15. Padmini DS, Venmathi A. Unsafe work environment in garment industries, Tirupur, India. JERAD 2012;
16. Nahar N, Ali RN, Begum F. Occupational Health Hazards in Garment Sector. Headache 2010;86,95-6.
17. Levy BS, Wegman DH, Baron SL, Sokas RK. Occupational and environment health: recognizin and preventing disease and injury. USA: Lippincott;2011.
18. Akhtar S, Shimul AM. Working hazards as indicator of occupational stress of industrial worker of Bangladesh. Asian Business Review 2012; 1(1), 141-4.
19. Silva PD, Lombardo S, Lipscomb H, Grand J, Ostbye T. Health status and quality of life of female garment workers in Sri Lanka. GMJ 2013; 18(1), 63-9.
20. Tunyaboontrakul P. Hazard preventive behavior from cotton dust among workers in Thai garment export company [dissertation online] 2010 [cited 2018 January 6] Available from https://dric.nrct.go.th/get_fulltext.php bookid=258118&absid=D RL000602 (In Thai)
21. Krejcie R, Morgan DW. Determining sample size for research activities. EPM 1970; 30, 607-10.
22. National Statistical Offce. The informal employment survey [internet] 2017 [cited 2018 March 29] Available from www.nso.go.th
23. Polat O, Kalayci CB. Ergonomic risk assessment of workers in garment industry [Internet] 2016 [cited 2017 December 6] Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309321719_Ergonomic_Risk_Assessment
24. Maksri P. Occupational health hazards and health status related to risk among informal garment workers [dissertation]. Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University; 2016. (In Thai)
25. Chaiklieng S, Suggaravetsiri P, Puntumetakul R. Prevalence and risk factors for work-related shoulder pain among informal garment workers in the northeast of Thailand. Small Enterprise Research 2014;21(2), 180-9.
26. Serinken M, Türkçüer İ, Dağlı B, Karcıoğlu Ö, Zencir M, Uyanık E. Work-related injuries in textile industry workers in Turkey. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2012; 18(1), 31-6.
27. Belshé K, Bradshaw L, Horton B. Hesis hazard evaluation system & Information service. California Department of Public Health [Internet] 2009 [cited 2017 December 6] Available from www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/OHB.
28. Athit K. Hazards in Combodian garment factories. Asian Labour Update 2005; 55(1), 1-3.
29. Jahan N, Das M, Mondal R, Paul S, Saha T, Akhtar R, ... , Banik PC. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among the Bangladeshi Garments Workers. SMU Medical Journal 2014; 2(1), 102-13.
30. International Labour Organization [ILO]. Safety and health in the use of machinery (ILO code of practice). Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Offce; 2013.
31. Chau N, Wild P, Dehaene D, Benanghar L, Mur JM, Touron C. Roles of age, length of service and job in workrelated injury: a prospective study of 446 120 personyear in railway workers. Occup Evniron Med 2010; 67, 147-53.