Main Article Content
Objective: To study and compare Bangkok residents’ attitudes towards breastfeeding in public, based on their genders, educational levels, ages, and numbers of children.
Design: Cross-sectional survey research.
Methodology: The study was conducted on 400 conveniently sampled male and female residents of Bangkok. The subjects had to be 18 years old or more and able to speak, read and write Thai. A questionnaire on attitudes towards breastfeeding in public was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for data analysis.
Results: The results showed that 70.2% of the sample supported breastfeeding in public. Around three-fourths (75.5%) considered breastfeeding in public acceptable; however, only 31% of the subjects found breastfeeding in public acceptable even without using breast covers. Ninety-fve percent of the subjects supported the provision of breastfeeding rooms in public places. An average attitude score was 55.14 (SD = 8.59), from a range between 26 and 75.
According to the comparative study, no signifcant difference in the attitude scores was found between genders (t(398) = -.969, p > .05), and ages (F(2, 397) = 1.476, p > .05). However, signifcant differences in the attitude scores were found between subjects with different educational levels (F(2, 397) = 3.185, p < .05), and between subjects with children and those without children (t(398) = -2.563, p < .05).
Recommendations: It is suggested that nurses develop intervention activities to promote and develop positive attitudes towards breastfeeding in public amongst individuals, groups, and communities, particularly amongst school children. Advocacy of mothers’ and infants’ right to public breastfeeding facilities should also be supported.
WHO; 2010 [cited 2016 Feb 15]. Available from: https://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_
2. United Nations Children’s Fund. The state of the world’s children 2016 in numbers: every child counts.
2016 [cited 2016 Oct 17]. Available from: https:// www.unicef.org/gambia/ SOWC_report_2016.pdf.
3. Apartsakun P. Discouraging factors of breastfeeding among Thai women. Journal of Public Health Nursing
2016; 30(2): 133-46. (in Thai)
4. Daly A, Pollard CM, Phillips M, Binns CW. Benefts, barriers and enablers of breastfeeding: factor analysis
of population perceptions in Western Australia. PLoS One 2014; 9(2): e88204.
5. Amir LH. Breastfeeding in public: "You can do it?". Int Breastfeed J 2014; 9(1): 187.
6. Li R, Fein SB, Chen J, Grummer-Strawn LM. Why mothers stop breastfeeding: mothers' self-reported
reasons for stopping during the frst year. Pediatrics 2008; 122: 69-76.
7. Stuebe AM, Bonuck K. What Predicts Intent to Breastfeed Exclusively? Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs in a Diverse Urban Population. Breastfeed Med 2011; 6(6): 413-20.
8. Spurles PK, Babineau J. A qualitative study of attitudes toward public breastfeeding among young Canadian
men and women. J Hum Lact 2011; 27(2): 131-7.
9. Morris C, de la Fuente GAZ, Williams CET, Hirst C. UK Views toward Breastfeeding in Public: An
Analysis of the Public's Response to the Claridge's Incident. J Hum Lact 2016; 32(3): 472-80.
10. Meng X, Daly A, Pollard CM, Binns CW. Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places among
Western Australia Adults, 1995-2009. J Hum Lact 2013; 29(2): 183-9.104
11. Mulready-Ward C, Hackett M. Perception and attitudes: breastfeeding in public in New York City.
J Hum Lact 2014; 30(2): 195-200.
12. Russell K, Ali A. Public Attitudes toward Breastfeeding in public places in Ottawa, Canada. J Hum Lact
2017; 33(2): 401-8.
13. Zhao Y, Ouyang YQ, Redding SR. Attitudes of Chinese adults to breastfeeding in public: A web-based
survey. Breastfeed Med 2017; 12(5): 1-6.
14. Fishbein M, Ajzen I. Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1975.
15. Ajzen I. Attitude structure and behavior. In: Hillsdale NJ, editors. Attitude structure and function. Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates; 1989. p. 241-74.
16. Hansen K, Kneale D. Does how you measure income make a difference to measuring poverty?. Centre for
longitudinal studies institute of education: University of London; 2011.
17. Strategy and Evaluation Department. Statistical profle of Bangkok metropolitan administration
2015. Bangkok: Religious affairs printing press offce of national buddhism; 2016.
18. Yamane T. Statistics: An introductory analysis. New York: Harper & Row; 1973.
19. Department of Health. Public perception survey on breastfeeding 2015. Survey report [Internet]. 2015
[cited 2017 Feb 4]. Available from: https://www. fhs.gov.hk/English/archive/fles/reports/public_
20. National consumers league. NCL’s breastfeeding mothers’ bill of rights. [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017
July 28]. Available from:https://www.nclnet.org/ breastfeeding_bill _of_rights.
21. UNICEF. Making breastfeeding everyone’s business. [Internet]. Chaina: UNICEF; 2010 [cited 2016 Feb
15]. Available from: https://www.unicef.cn/en/ press-release/chaina/4432.html.
22. Clark A. Changing attitudes through persuasive communication. Nurs Stand 1999; 13(30): 45-7.
23. Allport GW. Attitude: A handbook of social psychology. Worchester Mass: Clark University Press; 1935.
24. Negin J, Coffman J, Vizintin P, Greenow RC. The inﬂuence of grandmothers on breastfeeding rates: s
systematic review. BMC pregnancy and childbirth 2016; 16(1): 91.
25. Mannheim K. The problem of generations. In Essays on the sociology of knowledge (London: Routledge
and Kegan Paul) [Internet]. 1923 [cited 2016 Feb 15]. Available from:https://1989after1989.exeter.