Aphrodisiac Effect of Cultured Cordyceps militaris in Aged Male Rats

Main Article Content

Suphaphorn Saksopha Watcharaporn Preedapirom Natthapong Singpoonga Peerasak Chaiprasart Pornnarin Taepavarapruk

Abstract

            Cordyceps militaris has been well known as an elixir since ancient times. Due to its highly priced and its scarcity of this natural fungus, the cultured C. militaris (CCM) has been developed and increasingly consumed for health-promoting effects. In this study, C. militaris was cultured in the cereal grain culture medium. Since its effect has not yet been extensively studied, this study aimed to investigate the effects of CCM focusing on its aphrodisiac effect in aging rat model with erectile dysfunction (ED). The results showed that aged rats treated with CCM (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg BW) and sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg BW) by gavage demonstrated significant improvements in their mating behavior and intracavernosal pressure responses to cavernous nerve stimulation. Serum testosterone level of these rats also increased markedly and a significant increase was seen in rats treated with CCM 1.0 g/kg BW. The level of penile nitric oxide synthase activity of aged rats treated with CCM 1.0 g/kg BW showed significantly higher than that of the aged vehicle group. Malondialdehyde levels in testicular tissues of aged rats treated with CCM were significantly reduced. The results obtained from this study indicated that CCM are able to restore erection functions in aged rats. Therefore, CCM could be used as aphrodisiacs for enhancing sexual performance and for the treatment of ED, especially in aged men.

Keywords

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

1. Impotence. NIH Consensus development panel on impotence. JAMA. 1993 Jul 7;270(1):83-90.
2. Shabsigh R. Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction. In: Mulcahy J, editor. Current clinical urology: male sexual function: a guide to clinical management. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press; 2006. p. 47-59.
3. Raheem AA, Kell P. Patient preference and satisfaction in erectile dysfunction therapy: a comparison of the three phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2009 Nov 3;3:99-104.
4. Malviya N, Jain S, Gupta VB, Vyas S. Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction--a review. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Jan-Feb;68(1):3-8.
5. Melnyk JP, Marcone MF. Aphrodisiacs from plant and animal sources-a review of current scientific literature. Food Res Int. 2011 May;44(4):840-50.
6. Singh R, Ali A, Gupta G, Semwal A, Jeyabalan G. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential: A current status. J Acute Dis. 2013;2(3):179-88.
7. Kashyap D, Tuli HS, Sharma AK. Cordyceps: A natural Himalayan viagra with promising aphrodisiac potential. Austin Androl. 2016;1(2):1010.
8. Patel KJ, Ingalhalli RS. Cordyceps militaris (L.: Fr.) Link–an important medicinal mushroom. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2013;2(1):315-9.
9. Yue K, Ye M, Zhou Z, Sun W, Lin X. The genus Cordyceps: a chemical and pharmacological review. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;65(4):474-93.
10. Paterson RR. Cordyceps: a traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry. 2008 May;69(7):1469-95.
11. Won SY, Park EH. Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;96(3):555-61.
12. Rao YK, Fang SH, Wu WS, Tzeng YM. Constituents isolated from Cordyceps militaris suppress enhanced inflammatory mediator's production and human cancer cell proliferation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Sep 15;131(2):363-7.
13. Chang Y, Jeng KC, Huang KF, Lee YC, Hou CW, Chen KH, et al. Effect of Cordyceps militaris supplementation on sperm production, sperm motility and hormones in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(5):849-59.
14. Sohn SH, Lee SC, Hwang SY, Kim SW, Kim IW, Ye MB, et al. Effect of long-term administration of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris on testicular function in middle-aged rats. Planta Med. 2012 Oct;78(15):1620-5.
15. Singpoona N, Chaiprasart P, Sangon B. Effect of artificial culture media on Cordyceps millitaris fruiting body formation and bioactive compound production. Songklanakarin J Pl Sci. 2016; 3(Suppl 3):M02/34-46.
16. Agmo A. Male rat sexual behavior. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 1997 May;1(2): 203-9.
17. Ayta IA, McKinlay JB, Krane RJ. The likely worldwide increase in erectile dysfunction between 1995 and 2025 and some possible policy consequences. BJU Int. 1999 Jul;84(1):50-6.
18. Das SK, Masuda M, Sakurai A, Sakakibara M. Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects. Fitoterapia. 2010 Dec;81(8): 961-8.
19. Ng TB, Wang HX. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;57(12):1509-19.
20. Tuli HS, Sharma AK, Sandul SS, Kashyap D. Cordycepin: A bioactive metabolite with therapeutic potential. Life Sci. 2013 Nov 26;93(23):863-9.
21. Qin P, Li XK,Yang H,Wang Z, Lu D. Therapeutic potential and biological applications of cordycepin and metabolic mechanisms in cordycepin-producing fungi. Molecules. 2019 Jun 14;24(12):2231.
22. Chiu CP, Hwang TL, Chan Y, El‐Shazly M, Wu TY, Lo IW, et al. Research and development of Cordyceps in Taiwan. Food Sci Hum Wellness. 2016 Dec;5(4): 177-85.
23. Mehra A, Zaidi KU, Mani A, Thawani V. The health benefits of Cordyceps militaris - a review. KAVAKA. 2017;48(1):27-32.
24. Kang N, Lee H, Park I, Seo Y. Development of high cordycepin-producing Cordyceps militaris strains. Mycobiology. 2017 Mar;45(1):31-8.
25. Smith ER, Stefanick ML, Clark JT, Davidson JM. Hormones and sexual behavior in relationship to aging in male rats. Horm Behav. 1992 Mar;26(1):110-35.
26. Preedapirom W, Changwichit K, Srisawang P, Ingkaninan K, Taepavarapruk P. Aphrodisiac activity of Eulophia macrobulbon extract on erectile dysfunction in male aged rats. BioMed Res Int. 2018 Jul 9; 2018:6217029.
27. Li T, Wu C, Fu F, Xiong W, Qin F, Yuan J. Long-term aspirin administration has no effect on erectile function: evidence from adult rats and ageing rat model. Sci Rep. 2019 May 28;9(1):7941.
28. Gurbuz N, Kol A, Ipekci T, Ates E, Baykal A, Usta M. Chronic administration of sildenafil improves erectile function in a rat model of chronic renal failure. Asian J Androl. 2015 Sep-Oct;17(5):797-801.
29. Kovac JR, DeYoung L, Lehmann KJ, Chung E, Brock GB. The effects of combined free radical scavenger and sildenafil therapy on age‑associated erectile dysfunction: an animal model. Urol Ann. 2014 Oct;6(4):314-20.
30. Kopalli SR, Cha KM, Lee SH, Hwang SY, Lee YJ, Koppula S, et al. Cordycepin, an active constituent of nutrient powerhouse and potential medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris Linn., ameliorates age-related testicular dysfunction in rats. Nutrients. 2019 Apr 23;11(4):906.
31. Hong IP, Choi YS, Woo SO, Han SM, Kim HK, Lee MY, et al. Effect of Cordyceps militaris on testosterone production in Sprague-Dawley rats. Int J Indust Entomol. 2011 Sep;23(1):143-6.
32. Tuli HS, Sandhu SS, Sharma AK Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin. 3 Biotech. 2014 Feb;4(1):1-12
33. Reilly CM, Zamorano P, Stopper VS, Mills TM. Androgenic regulation of NO availability in rat penile erection. J Androl. 1997 Mar-Apr;18(2):110-5.
34. Lugg JA, Rajfer J, González-Cadavid NF. Dihydrotestosterone is the active androgen in the maintenance of nitric oxide-mediated penile erection in the rat. Endocrinology. 1995 Apr;136(4):1495-501.
35. Li R, Meng X, Zhang Y, Wang T, Yang J, Niu Y, et al. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats. PeerJ. 2016 May 3;4:e2000.