The use of economic instruments for reducing the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags in the European Union

Main Article Content

ปีดิเทพ อยู่ยืนยง


The European Union (EU) has developed many answers to environmental
issues related tothe excessive consumptionof disposal plastic bags, by exploring how
selected mechanisms toachieve reductioninlightweight plastic carrier bags inEurope.
Economic measures, suchas charges, taxes and internal market restrictions,have been
widelyused by some Member Statesof the EU (e.g. Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Ireland,
England) to reduce their use of lightweight plastic carrier bags. Recently, the financial
and marketabletoolsunder theEU Directive2015/720of theEuropeanParliament and
of the Council of 29 April 2015 amending Directive 94/62/EC as regards reducing the
consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags setting out a regime of responsibilities
of reduction in the amount of lightweight plastic carrier bags in EU Member States,
contain a clear picture how these responsibilities – including implementation of
economic mechanism that encourages to reduce the use of lightweight plastic carrier
bags. This paper aims to explore similarities and differences between economic
instrumentsofEU MemberStates (i.e. taxesonsome plastic bags,charges for single-use
plastic carrier bags etc.). In order to attain the key aims of this paper, this comparison
between EU Member State jurisdictions analysed shared effective steps to be taken to
reducetheexcessiveconsumptionof lightweight plasticcarrier bags inEurope.This paper
also critically examined some questions surrounding the EU regulatory frameworks by
meansofensuringharmonisationof reducing theconsumptionof disposal plastic bags.


Article Details

บทความวิชาการ (Academic Paper)


Bye,T. (2009).Economic Instruments in the context of climate change. Oslo:Economics,
Energy and Environment Statistics.
Centrefor thePromotionof Imports from Developing Countries. (2011). EU legislation:
Packaging and packaging waste. (Online). Available URL:
DanishEcological Council. (2015).Fact sheet: Tax on plastic bags. Copenhagen: Danish
Ecological Council.
DepartmentofEnvironmentand HeritageProtection. (2016). Implementing a lightweight
plastic shopping bag ban in Queensland - Discussion paper. Brisbane City:
Department of Environment and Heritage Protection.
Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government. (2017). Plastic
bag levy. (Online). Available URL:
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit. (2015). Reducing the input
of plastic litter into the ocean around Grenada Applicability and effects
of selected instruments. Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale
Environment Protection Authority. (2016). Plastic shopping bags Options paper:
Practical actions for plastic shopping bags. Sydney: Stateof New South Wales
& New South Wales’ Environment Protection Authority.
EUR-Lex. (2015). Directive (EU) 2015/720 of the European Parliament and of the Council
of 29 April 2015 amending Directive 94/62/EC as regards reducing the consumption
of lightweight plastic carrier bags. (Online). Available URL:http://eur-lex.europa.
Euro Commerce. (2014). Lightweight plastic carrier bags- Posssition Paper on EP
Amendments to Directive 94/62/EC. Brussels: Euro Commerce.
European Commission. (2013). Questions and answers on the proposal to reduce
the consumption of plastic bags. (Online). Available URL:
European Commission. (2015). Packaging and Packaging Waste. (Online). Available
Frater, L. (2011). Introduction of Single Use Carrier Bag Charge, Wales: Awareness
of and Acceptance by Shoppers in Cardiff. Cardiff: ESRC Centre for Business
Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society.
French Ministry of the Environment, Energy and the Sea. (2016). Energy Transition
For Green Growth Act in Action: Regions-Citizens-Business.Paris: French Ministry
of the Environment, Energy and the Sea (Ministère de l’Environnement,
de l’Energie et de la Mer).
Everett, M. & Priestley, S. (2015). The Single Use Carrier. London: House of Commons.
House of Commons. (2014). Plastic bags Eleventh Report of Session 2013-14.
London: The Stationery Office.
Karlaite, D. (2016). The importance of responsible production and consumption
to overcome the plastic paradox. (Online). Available URL: http://stics.mruni.
Kasidoni, M., Moustakas,K. & Malamis, D. (2015).“The existing situation and challenges
regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.” Waste Management
& Research 33 (5), 419–428.
Miller, R. M. (2012). Plastic Shopping Bags: An Analysis of Policy Instruments for
Plastic Bag Reduction. (Online). Available URL: file:///C:/Users/Administrator/
PlasticBagBanReport. (2012).Bulgaria Hikes Ecotax on Plastic Bags. (Online). Available
Plastics Europe. (2004). Plastic Shopping Bags: From litting to re-use and resource
recovery. Brussels: Plastics Europe.
Plastics Europe. (2014). View Paper on the European Commission’s proposal on
lightweight plastic carrier bags COM(2013) 761 final. Brussels: Plastics Europe.
Plastic News Europe. (2012). Bulgaria to increase plastic bag tax by 233%. (Online).
Ségolène Royal New COP21 President. (2016). Stop Plastic Waste: Launch of the
International Coalition. (Online). Available URL: http://www.developpement-
Watkins, E. et al. (2012). Use of Economic Instrument and Waste Management
Performances - Final Report. Paris: European Commission Directorate General
for Environment.
Withana,S.,Brink,P.T., Illes, A., Nanni,S. &Watkins,E. (2014).Environmental Tax Reform
in Europe: Opportunities for the future. London: Institute for European
Environmental Policy