Main Article Content
The Bayley-III Screening test is one of the most worldwide used standardized assessments for young children aged between 1-42 months, however, it is less well-known in Thailand. This preliminary study aimed to conduct developmental screening using the Bayley-IIIscreening test and to report the cross-sectional developmental performance of infants and toddlers in Mueang Phitsanulok, Thailand during August 2007. The secondary objective was to explore the feasibility of using Bayley-III Screening in Thailand. We assessed 67 Thai children (31 boys and 36 girls; age range 1-42 months old [mean=16 months; SD=9.74, this included bothchronological age and corrected age for prematurity]). The Bayley-III test was administered to assess five subtests of development: cognitive, expressive- and receptive-communication, fine and gross-motor functioning. Summary scores for each subtest were determined using the Bayley-III subtest cut-score information regarding the child’s age, and classified into ‘competent’, ‘emerging’, and ‘at risk’ categories. All 67 children were assessed but three infants were dropped-off during the assessments as they were in an inattentive state. In all five subtests, the majority of those 64 included children were classified as ‘competent’, i.e. as typically developing, while only about 3-20% of the children were categorized as ‘emerging’ risk and 3-7% of the children were found ‘at risk’ to developmental delays. For the latter, 4 children exhibited ‘at risk’ in both cognitive and communication subtests. Based on the Bayley-III identification, the developmental performance of young children in Mueang Phitsanulok during August 2007 was generally at the lowest risk for developmental delays.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
The authors retain copyright and permit the journal the copyright of first publication
Aylward, G.P., Verhulst, S.J., & Bell, S. (1996). Predictive validity of the Bayley Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) risk status classifications. Dev Med Child Neurol, 138(Suppl 74): 26.
Aylward, G. P., & Verhulst, S. J. (2000). Predictive utility of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) risk status classifications: clinical interpretation and application. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 42(1), 25-31.
Aylward, G. P. (2009). Developmental screening and assessment: what are we thinking?. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 30(2), 169-173.
Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley scales of infant development: Second edition : manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Bayley, N. (2006). Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler developmental, Third Edition. San Antonio, TX. Harcourt Assessment: The Psychological Corporation.
Committee on Children with Disabilities. (2001). Developmental surveillance and screening of infants and young children. Pediatrics, 108(1), 192-195.
Committee on Children with Disabilities. (2002). Developmental surveillance and screening of infants and young children. Pediatrics, 108, 192–202.
Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. (2007). Retrieved from https://www.anamai.moph.go.th/
Frankenburg, W. K., Dodds, J., Archer, P., Shapiro, H., & Bresnick, B. (1992). The Denver II: a major revision and restandardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Pediatrics, 89(1), 91-97.
Glascoe, F. P., Byrne, K. E., Ashford, L. G., Johnson, K. L., Chang, B., & Strickland, B. (1992). Accuracy of the Denver-II in developmental screening. Pediatrics, 89(6), 1221-1225.
Glascoe, F. P. (2001). Are overreferrals on developmental screening tests really a problem?. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 155(1), 54-59.
Guevara, J. P., Gerdes, M., Localio, R., Huang, Y. V., Pinto-Martin, J., Minkovitz, C. S., ... & Pati, S. (2013). Effectiveness of developmental screening in an urban setting. Pediatrics, 131(1), 30-37.
Hess, C. R., Papas, M. A., & Black, M. M. (2004). Use of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener with an environmental risk group. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29(5), 321-330.
Hix-Small, H., Marks, K., Squires, J., & Nickel, R. (2007). Impact of implementing developmental screening at 12 and 24 months in a pediatric practice. Pediatrics, 120(2), 381-389.
Johnson, S., & Marlow, N. (2006). Developmental screen or developmental testing? Early human development, 82(3), 173-183.
Kotchabhakdi, N., Lersawassadatrakul, O. (2003). Handbook of Training manual of pre-school children Denver II (Thai version), revised edition. National Institute for Child and Family Development, Mahidol University, Bangkok. (In Thai)
Morrison, J., Chunsuwan, I., Bunnag, P., Gronholm, P. C., & Lockwood Estrin, G. (2018). Thailand’s national universal developmental screening programme for young children: action research for improved follow-up. BMJ Global Health, 3(1), e000589.
Phitsanulok Health Data. Phitsanulok Provincial Health Office. (2006) Summary of Phitsanulok Province - Ministry of Public Health Policy: 1st trimester, unpublished data (in Thai)
Schonwald, A., Huntington, N., Chan, E., Risko, W., & Bridgemohan, C. (2009). Routine developmental screening implemented in urban primary care settings: more evidence of feasibility and effectiveness. Pediatrics, 123(2), 660-668.
Silver, N. C., & Dunlap, W. P. (1987). Averaging correlation coefficients: Should Fisher's z transformation be used?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(1), 146.
Sirithongthaworn, S., Narkpongphun, A., Pongtaweeboon, N., Itsarapong, P., Kasemsuk, W., Pila, S., Phrommin, P., Langaphin, S., Sutthibuta, U., & Thanu, K. (2013a). A Study of Child Developmental Norms for Children from birth to 5 years of age in Chiang Mai. International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health, 1(1), 7-18.
Sirithongthaworn, S., Narkpongphun, A., Pongtaweeboon, N., Itsarapong, P., Kasemsuk, W., Pila, S., Phrommin, P., Langaphin, S., Sutthibuta, U., & Thanu, K. (2013b). The Study of Child Development Norms of Thai Children Age from Birth to 5 Years using Child Development Assessment Tools Developed by the Mental Health Department, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health, 1(2), 7-25.
Sirithongthaworn, S. (2018). The Development of Developmental Surveillance and Promotion Manual; DSPM. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 63(1), 3-12.
Techasaensiri, B., Chuthapisith, J., Thaowan, S., Ruangdaraganon, N. (2011). Validity of a Thai version of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development, Third edition (Bayley-III) language scale: a pilot study in 18-to 24-month-old children. Thai J Pediatr, 50: 133-143.
Visser, L., Vlaskamp, C., Emde, C., Ruiter, S. A., & Timmerman, M. E. (2017). Difference or delay? A comparison of Bayley-III Cognition item scores of young children with and without developmental disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities, 71, 109-119.