International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The main aim of the journal is to encourage scholars, health providers, and child development and mental health specialists to publish scholarly articles that include original and review articles, case studies, case reports, miscellany&nbsp;and systemic reviews related to child development and mental health. The Journal&nbsp;is published twice a year in<strong> January - June</strong> and <strong>July - December</strong> by Rajanagarindra Institute of Child Development, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</strong>International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health is an <strong>Open Access Journal</strong>, and all articles are immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download upon publication.</p> en-US <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/cdmh/2000px-Cc_by-nc-nd_oo.png"></a><br><sub>Creative Commons License<br>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-N<span class="spell-diff-red">o D</span>erivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)<br></sub><sub>The authors retain copyright and permit the journal the copyright of first publication</sub></p> (Dr. Samai Sirithongthaworn) (Preechaya Phrommin) Tue, 11 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 Content 6.2 Samai Sirithongthaworn; Duujian Tsai, Yen Kuang Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Antipsychotic Prescription Trends, Patterns and Associated Factors in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This study evaluated the prescription trends, patterns and associated factors of antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents. We conducted a retrospective study by using the database of outpatient health insurance files of a psychiatric center in Northern Taiwan from 2004 to 2013. A total of 173,209 outpatient health insurance files were included. The average age of the study patients was 11.3 (±3.9) years. Of all visits of the patients, 13.4% were prescribed antipsychotics. The prescription rate of all antipsychotic medication types in all the outpatients aged ≤18 years increased yearly by 0.6%. The prescription rate of first-generation antipsychotics decreased with an estimated average annual percent change of 5.6% (p &lt; .001). By contrast, the prescription rate of second-generation antipsychotics increased with an estimated average annual percent change of 3.4% (p &lt;.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine clinical factors (age, sex and diagnosis) associated with antipsychotic prescription. After adjusting for other variables, antipsychotic prescription was found to be increased by 1.31 times every year with age and by 1.06 times in the male patients. The patients with diagnoses other than schizophrenia appeared less likely to be prescribed antipsychotics. Antipsychotic medications are being increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents in recent years. T he efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in children and adolescents warrant clinical attention.</p> Shu Wen Cheng, Kuo Ping Li, Chih Tsai Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Dec 2018 13:40:32 +0700 Correlation of Month of Birth and Socioeconomic Status with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Nationwide Study <p>The aim of this study was to investigate whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with birth in certain months in Taiwan, as has been found in other countries. A case–control study (1:4) matched according to sex and age was conducted. The study population comprised 4.3% of the population of Taiwan, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 1996 through 2008. Multiple logistic regressions were performed after adjusting for socioeconomic factors of urbanization level and income level. A total of 965 people with ASD and 3,860 controls were recruited. In comparison with a March birth, a higher risk of ASD was found for June and August births. After adjusting for level of urbanization and income, the risk of developing ASD was still higher for June, July, and August births over the year. There was higher risk of ASD in urban area when comparing with rural area. A higher risk of ASD was found in the highest income level. A higher risk of ASD was identified among children born in summer months, and a higher risk of ASD in urban area and high socioeconomic status suggested the presence of social-environmental causes of ASD.</p> Ching-Lin Chu, Mei Hung Chi, Chia-Hung Tang, Yi Ting Hsieh, Tzu I Lee, Yen Kuang Yang, Po See Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Dec 2018 13:41:32 +0700 Developmental performance of young children aged 1 - 42 months in Mueang Pitsanulok, Thailand: The Bayley-III Screening Survey. <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The Bayley-III Screening test is one of the most worldwide used standardized assessments for young children aged between 1-42 months, however, it is less well-known in Thailand. This preliminary study aimed to conduct developmental screening using the Bayley-IIIscreening test and to report the cross-sectional developmental performance of infants and toddlers in Mueang Phitsanulok, Thailand during August 2007. The secondary objective was to explore the feasibility of using Bayley-III Screening in Thailand. We assessed 67 Thai children (31 boys and 36 girls; age range 1-42 months old [mean=16 months; SD=9.74, this included bothchronological age and corrected age for prematurity]). The Bayley-III test was administered to assess five subtests of development: cognitive, expressive- and receptive-communication, fine and gross-motor functioning. Summary scores for each subtest were determined using the Bayley-III subtest cut-score information regarding the child’s age, and classified into ‘competent’, ‘emerging’, and ‘at risk’ categories. All 67 children were assessed but three infants were dropped-off during the assessments as they were in an inattentive state. In all five subtests, the majority of those 64 included children were classified as ‘competent’, i.e. as typically developing, while only about 3-20% of the children were categorized as ‘emerging’ risk and 3-7% of the children were found ‘at risk’ to developmental delays. For the latter, 4 children exhibited ‘at risk’ in both cognitive and communication subtests. Based on the Bayley-III identification, the developmental performance of young children in Mueang Phitsanulok during August 2007 was generally at the lowest risk for developmental delays.</p> Mattana Angsupaisal, Nuanlaor Thawinchai, Warany Prathep ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Dec 2018 13:42:31 +0700 The Effects of a Mindfulness Therapy Program on Core Symptoms of Children with ADHD Disorder <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The objectives of this study were to develop and assess the effects of the mindfulness program on core symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with ADHD quasi-experimental research was adopted in this study. Thirty-six children ages 9-12 years with ADHD participated in this study. Participants were divided into an experimental group (n=20) and control group (n=16). The experimental group participated in the mindfulness program weekly lasting 1 hour for ten sessions. Data collection tools included (SNAP-IV), Executive Function Assessments (Stroop Color and Word Test, Children’s Color Trails Test (CCTT), and Quantitative Electroencephalography (qEEG). Data was analyzed by percentile, mean, Pair t-test and Independent t-test. Within the experimental group, there was a significant reduction at .001 of the score from SNAP-IV and a significant difference at .05 of the score from Stroop Color and Word Test before and after attending the intervention. The qualitative of EEG (qEEG) with regards to the Delta wave frequency also showed a significant reduction while the score from CCTT showed a difference but was not statistically significant. Between the experimental group and control group, a significant difference was found in the scores from the Stroop Color and Word Test. Differences shown in scores between the groups from the SNAP-4, CCTT, and qEEG were not statistically significant.</p> Somnuek Anantavorawong, Assawin Narkpongphun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Validity and Reliability Study of the Indonesian Empathy Quotient–Systemizing /Quotient for Children (EQ-C/SQ-C) <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Empathy and systemising skill are very important for strengthening pro-social behaviour. However, the EQ-C/SQ-C questionnaire was originally framed in the English language and has not been translated into the Indonesian language. Therefore, this study aims at validating and to analysing the reliability of the EQ-C/ SQ-C in the Indonesian version. The study used a cross-sectional design that included 752 primary school students and their parents .They were selected randomly in accordance with their willingness to participate in the study. The parents were asked to fill the EQ-C/SQ-C questionnaire. The educational background of the parents was at least secondary high school. The analysis included content and construct validity, internal consistency reliability test. All analyses were run on SPSS for Mac version 21. The age of children ranged between 4–14 years, with mean (SD) being 10.07 (0.07). The educational background of parents was mostly above the high school degree. The content validity analysis showed that four statements of the EQ-C/ SQ-C Indonesian version were not validated by the experts’ judgment; therefore, they were deleted. The construct validation done after deleting 7 items of EQ-C and 6 items of SQ-C, the requirement for principle<br>component analysis was accomplished. Principal component analysis of EQ-C/SQ-C items extracted three components with eigenvalue &gt;1. These two components justified 64.39% of the total EQ-C/SQ-C variance. Internal consistency was good with Cronbach’s alpha 0.979. EQ-C/SQ-C Indonesian version had a shorter version with 38 items. It was a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure the empathy and systemizing skills among Indonesian children.</p> Yudi Reza Phallapi, Tjhin Wiguna, Eloisa Nathania, Kamila Ratu Chaidir, Kindah Mahdiyyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Dec 2018 14:15:53 +0700