Effects of Back School Program on Low Back Pain and Functional Status in Rice Farmers

  • พัชรินทร์ น้อยสุวรรณ Professional nurse, Hangdong Hospital, Chiang Mai Province
  • วีระพร ศุทธากรณ์ Assistant Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University
  • วันเพ็ญ ทรงคำ Lecturer, Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University
Keywords: Back School Program, Low back pain, Functional Status, Farmers

Abstract

Low back pain is an important health problem among rice farmers, affecting their work and daily-life function. A back school program is widely accepted as treatment, as it helps to reduce low back pain and improve functional status. The purpose of this quasi-experimental research was to examine the effects of a back school program on low back pain and functional status among 64 rice farmers in Hang Dong District, Chiang Mai Province. The study was implemented between December 2014 and February 2015. The study participants were selected by purposive sampling based on certain criteria. Participants were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups consisting of 31 and 33 participants, respectively. Both groups were similar in terms of gender and age. The experimental group received a back school program consisting of an educational session on low back pain, a practice session about proper postures in daily and working life, back stabilization exercises, and self-management for low back pain. The control group worked as usual. Data collecting instruments included the Numeric Rating Scale and the Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (Modified ODQ). These tools were standardized and were tested for reliability, which was obtained using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and yielded a value of 0.80. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

The results of study

The major results showed that, after the experiment, the experimental group had statistically significant lower mean scores of low back pain than before the experiment, as well as higher mean scores of functional status at weeks 6 and 12 (p < .001). When comparing groups, the experimental group had statistically significant lower mean scores of low back pain and higher mean scores of functional status than the control group at weeks 6 and 12 (p < .001). These results indicate the effectiveness of back school programs on reducing low back pain and improving functional status among rice farmers. Thus, occupational and environmental health nurses and related health care personnel should promote back school programs among rice farmers who are at risk of low back pain in order to help them increase the quality of their working life.

References

American College of Sport Medicine [ACSM]. (2009).ACSM strength training guidelines: role in body
composition and health enhancement. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal, 13(4),
14-22. doi: 10.1249/FIT.0b013e3181aaf460

Brox, J. I., Storheim, K., Grotle, M., Tveito, T. H., Indahl, A., & Eriksen, H. R. (2008). Evidence in formed management of chronic low back pain with back schools, brief education, and fear-avoidance training. The Spine Journal, 8(1), 28-39. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.008.

Burns, N., & Grove, S. K. (Eds.). (2001). Intervention research. The practice of nursing research
conduct, critique, & utilization (4th ed., pp. 331-364). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Chaikaew, W., Wiengkam, P., Suankul, P., Chaikaew, K., & Singkham, A. (2010). The Efficacy of
Phrae Hospital Back School Program for Chronic Low Back Pain Patients.
Buddhachinaraj Medical Journal, 27(1), 329-338. (In Thai)

Dagenais, S., Caro, J., & Haldeman, S. (2008). A systematic review of low back pain cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally. The Spine Journal, 8(1), 8-20. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.005.

Dupeyron, A., Ribinik, P., Gélis, A., Genty, M., Claus, D.,& Coudeyre, E. (2011). Education in the management of low back pain: literature review and recall of key recommendations for practice. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 54(5), 319-335. doi: 10.1016/j.rehab.2011.06.001

Downie, W. W., Leatham, P. A., Rhind, V. M., Wright, V., Branco, J. A., & Anderson, J. A. (1978). Studies with pain rating scales. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases Journal, 37(4), 378-381. doi:10.1136/ard.37.4.378

Fabunmi, A. A., Aba, S. O., & Odunaiya, N. A. (2005). Prevalence of low back pain among peasant
farmers in a rural community in South West Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 34(3), 259-262.

Goldby, L. J., Moore, A. P., Doust, J., &Trew, M. E. (2006). A randomized controlled trial
investigating the efficiency of musculoskeletal physiotherapy on chronic low back
disorder.The Spine Journal, 31(10), 1083-1093. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000216464.37504.64

Hayden, J. A., van Tulder, M. W., Malmivaara, A., & Koes, B. W. (2005). Exercise therapy for
treatment of non-specific low back pain. The Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews, 3, 1-66. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000335.pub2.

Heymans, M. W., van Tulder, M. W., Esmail,R., Bombardier, C., & Koes, B. W. (2005). Back schools
for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. The Spine Journal, 30(19), 2153-2163. doi: 10.1097 /01.brs.0000182227.33627.15

Holmberg, S., Stiernstrom, E. L, Thelin, A., & Svardsudd, K. (2002). Musculoskeletal symptoms
among farmers and non-farmers: a population-based study. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 8(4), 339-345.

Jackson, C. P., & Klugerman, M. (1988). How to start a Back School. The Journal of Orthopaedicand Sports Physical Therapy, 10(1), 1-7.doi: 10.2519/jospt.1988.10.1.1

Somsirinak, W., Khantawithi, T., & Sakunkripira, S. (2011). Effect of Back School Program on
Functional Ability in Activities of Daily Living and Frequency of Postural Awareness in
Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain. Vajira Medical Journal, 55(3), 273-281. (In Thai)

Kumthornthip W. (2011). Back pain. In Pajarya K. (Ed.), Rehabilitation medicine for medical
practitioners. Bangkok: N. P. Press. Co., Ltd. (In Thai)

Kaplansky, B. D., Wei, F. Y., & Reecer, M. V. (2006). Prevention strategies for occupational low
back pain. Clinics in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 5(3), 529-544.

Katz, J. N. (2006). Lumbar disc disorders and low-back pain: socioeconomic factors and consequences.
The American Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 88(2), 21-24. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.01273

Klaber, J. A., Chase, S. M., Portek, I, & Ennis, J. R. (1986). A controlled, prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a back school in the relief of chronic low back pain.The Spine Journal, 11(2), 120-122. Retrieved December 22, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2939571

Koes, B. W., van Tulder, M., Lin, C. W., Macedo, L. G., McAuley, J., & Maher, C. ( 2010). An updated overview
of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary
care. European Spine Journal, 19(12), 2075-2094. doi: 10.1007/s00586-010-1502-y.

Manit, N., Sutthakorn, V., & Wisutthananon, A. (2011). Effect of Stretching Exercise on
Low Back Pain and Functional Ability in Home-based Garment Workers. Nursing
Journal, 38(4), 93-105. (In Thai)

Martin, B., Dayo, R., & Mirza, S. (2008). Expenditure and health status among adult with back and neck problem.
The Journal of The American Medical Association, 299(6), 656-664. doi: 10.1001/jama.299.6.656

Norris, C., & Matthews, M. (2008). The role of an integrated back stability program in patients with chronic low back pain. Complementary therapies clinical practice, 14(4), 255-263. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2008.06.001

Osborne, A., Blake, C., Fullen, B., Meredith, D., Phelan, J., McNamara, J., & Cunningham, C. (2012).
Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers: a systematic review.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55(2), 143–158. doi: 10.1002/ajim.21033

Osborne, A., Blake, C., McNamara, J., Meredith, D., Phelan, J., & Cunningham, C. (2010). Musculoskeletal disorders among Irish farmers. Occupational Medicine, 60(8), 598–603. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqq146

Park, H., Sprince, N. L., Whitten, P. S., Burmeiste, L., &Zwerling, C. (2001). Risk factors for backpain among male farmers: Analysis of Iowa farm family health and hazard: surveillance study.American Journal of Indutrial Medicine, 40(6), 646- 654.doi: 10.1002/ajim.10025

Punnett, L., Pruss-Utun, A., Nelson, D. I.,Fingerhut, M . A., Leigh, J., Tak, S.,&Phillips S. (2005).Estimating the global burden of low back pain attributable to combined occupational exposures. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48(6), 459–469.doi: 10.1002/ajim.20232

Srisatitnarakul, B. (2007). Research Methodology in Nursing.(4thed.). Bangkok: U & I Inter Media Co., Ltd. (In Thai)

Sangseedam, P. (2005). Preliminary Study for Low Back Pain Reduction in Farmers : A Case
Study of the Paddy Farmers in 3 Sub-Districts of Ranode Districts, Songkla Province. (Master’s thesis school of Industrial Engineering). Graduate School, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok. (In Thai)

Sahin, N., Albayrak, I.,Durmus, B., &Ugurlu, H. (2011). Effectiveness of back school for treatment
of pain and functional disability in patientwith chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(3), 224-229. doi:10.2340/16501977-0650

Sakulsriprasert, P., Vachalathiti, R., Vongsirinavarat, M., & Kantasorn, J. (2006). Cross-cultural adaptation of
modified oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire to Thai and its reliability. Journal of The
Medical Association of Thailand, 89(10), 1694-1701.

Shaw, W. S., van der Windt, D. A., Main, C. J., Loisel, P. & Linton, S. J. (2009). Early patient screening and intervention to address individual-level occupational factors (‘‘blue flags’’) in back disability.Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 19, 64–80. doi: 10.1007/s10926-008-9159-7

Shirado, O., Lto, T., Kikumoto, T., Takkeda, N., Minami, A. &Straeix, T. E. (2005). A novel backschool using a
multidisciplinary team approach featuring quantitative function evaluation and therapeutic
exercise for patient with chronic low back pain.The Spine Journal,30(10), 1219–1225.
doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000162279.94779.05

Solmaz, Z. A., Bonab, S., Naeini, S. S. &Rahmati, H. (2012).The effect of back school programs on decreasing of low back pain and alterations in spine curvatures. Annals of Biological Research, 3(1), 132-139.

Taechasubamorn, P., Nopkesorn, T., &Pannarunothai, S. (2011).Prevalence of low back pain among rice
farmers in a rural community in Thailand . Journal of The Medicine Association of Thailand, 94(5), 616-621.

Turner-Stokes, L., Ereller-Yuksel, F., Miles, A., Pincus, T., Shipley, M., & Pearce, S. (2003). Outpatient cognitive behavioral pain management programs: a randomized comparison of a group-based multidisciplinary versus an individual therapy model. The Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(6), 781-788. doi: 10.1016/S0003-9993(03)00015-7

Wangkrasae, A. (2009). Effectiveness of back school programe for weightlifters with low back
pain. Master of Science (Movement and Exercise Sciences). Chiang Mai University.
Published
2019-09-27
Section
บทความวิจัย