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The purpose of this research was to construct a diagnostic test for its quality The purpose of this research was to construct a diagnostic test for its quality and find the shortcomings of learning in science lessons on heredity for the fifth grader of the school in KhonKaen Municipality. The sample groups were 550 students of Prathomsuksa 5 in second semester, year 2015, from 7 schools in KhonKaen Municipality. The samplings were a multi-stage random sampling. The tools used for collecting data were to 1) the aptitude test was a filling in the blank, 2) the diagnostic test was a multiple 4 choices. The data analyzed by frequency, IOC, difficulty (P), discrimination powers (B), reliability (rcc), percentage, average, and standard deviation. The results showed: the diagnostic test was acceptable with its content validity or consistency index value from 0.60 to 1.00 reaching the difficulty from 0.62 to 0.76, the discrimination from 0.30 to 0.93, the reliability of the test at 0.83. The students had 22.87% of shortcomings in contents analysis, 19.04% in contents retention, 18.61% in grapping the contents meaning, 18.13% in contents understanding, 13.42% in contents sorting, and 7.93% in contents description.