International Journal of East Asian Studies <p>The <strong><em>International Journal of East Asian Studies</em> (IJEAS)</strong> is an internationally refereed, bilingual (English and Thai) journal devoted to publishing humanities and social sciences research on issues related to East and Southeast Asia. It aims to be a venue for authors seeking to share their evidences and interpretations on emerging and compelling topics in the scholarship on the region. It also endeavors to be a synergy between discipline-based scholars and area specialists, who come from different academic backgrounds, contributing their knowledge collectively both for educational purposes and for society as a whole. The IJEAS is indexed in the ASEAN Citation Index (ACI) and the Thai-Journal Citation Index (TCI). The Journal has both printed and electronic editions.</p> Institute of East Asian Studies, Thammasat University en-US International Journal of East Asian Studies 0857-6033 The Influence of Thailand’s Image and Foreign Tourist Satisfaction on Foreign Tourist Loyalty for Thailand <p>Thailand has been famous for being a travelling destination due to its natural tourist attractions, variety of accommodations, food and beverages, quality of services, etc. Foreigners from several countries around the world have selected Thailand as their travelling destination. The tourism sector plays an important role in contributing to Thailand’s GDP. Additionally, the Thailand’s government also supports the tourism sector by launching advertising and organizing events to promote Thailand’s image as an interesting travelling destination and to persuade not only Thai people but also foreigners to travel in Thailand. Even the number of foreign tourists continuously increases over time, there are some situations, such as bad news with foreign tourists, political instability, etc., which can destroy Thailand’s image and result to a decline in the number of foreign tourists and affects Thailand’s tourism sector, GDP, and economy. This research is, then, conducted to study the influence of Thailand’s image and foreign tourist satisfaction on foreign tourist loyalty for Thailand. Simple Linear Regression and Multiple Linear Regression has been employed to investigate all hypotheses with 400 respondents who are non-Thai and visit Thailand for travelling purpose. The result reveals that cognitive image significantly influences affective image, cognitive image and affective image significantly influence tourist satisfaction on the tour, and affective image and tourist satisfaction on the tour significantly influence tourist loyalty for Thailand.</p> Rawin Vongurai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 22 2 2 21 “Mao Zedong Thought” and the Cultural Revolution <p>This study examines “Mao Zedong Thought” in leading the Chinese Communist Party, China, and the Thought that led to the eruption of the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and its impacts. It is found that Mao Zedong Thought was mainly developed from Marxism-Leninism, his background and experience. The key elements of Mao Zedong Thought are Marxist revolution, the importance of the peasants, mass mobilization and voluntarism, continuous revolution, proletarian revolution, self-criticism, class struggle, and the primacy of Mao Zedong Thought. He was also interested in employing conflict theory to change culture and socio-political system of China. Campaigns launched under Maoist ideology had an important and serious impact on China and Chinese people. Reasons for the Cultural Revolution, erupted in 1966, are quite complex. For Mao, it is as an ideal of social transformation and his response to revisionism that threatened his thought of social equality and class struggle. Although purging the Party leaders, condemned as revisionists, was his personal reason, it was the Thought on continuous revolution and mobilizing the masses. The Cultural Revolution went beyond the stage of historical development and failed to lead effectively. It greatly impacted on various parts of China and changed the Chinese people’s world outlook and values.</p> Siriporn Dabphet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 22 2 22 38 University Social Responsibility (USR) and Community Engagement in Sustainable Development <p>The University Social Responsibility (USR) has been widely discussed in Thailand mostly through the Service Learning (SL), which is a potential university’s mechanism that assists in transformation of teaching and learning to develop social responsibility and an ethic of service. SL shows that students and instructors develop social responsibility and leadership, and also gain personal and social skills. The objectives of study are as followings, (a) to examine the new role of universities in the USR, (b) to review a case study of USR activity of an on - going project performed by Thammasat University, and (c) to review the USR application by investigating university instructors’ willingness in participate the USR project to build community strengths. The study’s important task is to examine how to introduce the idea of University - USR to support building community strengths that is coherent with civic movement. The study found that orientation of the SL is placed on its effectiveness and its ability to address community needs at a structural level. Through participation in the SL, students may develop understandings of the nature of social problems and of strategies for fundamental social change. Moreover, the study examines potential aspects of the SL and identifies an agenda for strengthening two key factors (a) trusts of the projects’ instructors, staffs, peers, community members, and employers, and (b) duration and intensity of the projects must be flexible and appropriated to the defined objectives. The SL do consider not only short-term but also long-term projects in USR policy.</p> Chaweewan Denpaiboon Pattamon Selanon Bussara Povatong Satoshi Otsuki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 22 2 40 56 Nguyen Co Thach in the Views of Thai Media in 1982 <p>This article aimed to study the views of Thai media towards Nguyen Co Thach in 1982 using the historical method. It focused on Thai newspapers from seven publishing houses, namely Matuphum, Chaothai, Siamrath, Naewna, Matichon, Siam Rath Weekly and Matichon Weekly, presenting news about Nguyen Co Thach from February 1 – March 29, 1982 (B.E. 2527). The study found that the “Cambodian problem” caused Nguyen Co Thach to visit to various countries in Europe as well as ASEAN countries and Burma in 1982 in order to figure out common solutions to the Cambodia problem. Especially, when Nguyen Co Thach scheduled to travel to Thailand as a guest of the Foreign Minister in late July 1982, it can be seen that many newspapers were interested in reporting the news of him. The views of the newspapers were divided into three periods. The first period was before the official visit to Thailand of Nguyen Co Thach. He was depicted more negatively than positively. He became a villain in Thai history again through the recognition of Thai newspapers. He was perceived as aggressive, intimidating, irresponsible, sly, foolish and deceitful person. The words, including hard child, immoral thug, ill manner and weak were used to describe Nguyen Co Thach by Thai newspapers. The second period was during the visit to Thailand as a guest of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on July 28-30, 1982. The image of Nguyen Co Thach was illustrated by Thai newspapers in two ways: the image as the villain such as having dirty tongue, being a liar, selfish–aggressive–having ill manner, and being undisciplined. On the contrary, Thai newspapers gave him a good image, such as being friendly and not being arrogant. The third period was after he returned to Vietnam. Thai newspapers negatively expressed their views through Nguyen Co Thach. The image of the villain was given to him again. This was the end of his visit to Thailand in 1982. The expressions of Thai newspapers on Nguyen Co Thach were based on the context at that time.</p> Thananan Boonwanna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 22 2 57 85 Decision-Making Process of Revision to the Basic Act on Education <p>By analyzing revision process of the Basic Act on Education (BAE), this study examined jockeying among political actors in Japan, 1999-2006. Particularly, we discuss this process’s meanings to three important political actors, the Diet members’ group of the LDP with a special interest in education (Bunkyozoku), the structural reformist group of the LDP, and another ruling party, the Komeito Party. This revision to the BAE, believed the most difficult educational reform to coordinate within the LDP and among coalition parties, was resolved with few unpleasant feelings among actors because each received some satisfying benefits. However, from the long-term standpoint, for ruling parties overall, this “achievement” was not necessarily positive. Citizens did not desire such an ideological educational reform as this revision; thus, it pulled many votes from ruling parties. That is to say, the revision’s “success” resulted in accelerating diminished approval ratings for ruling parties, especially the LDP.</p> Norifumi Takeishi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 22 2 86 105 The Japanese Military and the Burma Independence Army in Northern Thailand, 1939-1942 <p>This article examines the cooperation between the Japanese military and Burmese nationalists in Thailand in establishing the Burma Independence Army (BIA) in Thailand during the Second World War. It focuses on the role of the Japanese military and Burmese nationalists who lived in Northern Thailand, which hosted numerous Burmese migrants. This study found that the Japanese military in Thailand attempted to inflame a sense of Burmese nationalism and to use the same strategies as they had used in British Burma in order to recruit Burmese migrants for the BIA. The problem of recruiting Burmese migrants was that their sense of Burmese nationalism was not as strong as the Burmese who lived in British Burma. For this reason, the Japanese military not only turned to Burmese monks and the social networks of local Burmese nationalists to persuade local Burmese to join the BIA but also made use of the legal status of British Burmese subjects in order to increase the number of those conscripted.</p> Thanyarat Apiwong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 22 2 106 123