Forest Dynamics and Tree Distribution Patterns in Dry Evergreen Forest, Northeastern, Thailand

Main Article Content

Wongsatorn Phumphuang Dokrak Marod Sarawood Sungkaew Sathid Thinkampaeng

Abstract

Deforestation based on anthropogenic activities is the main cause of biological diversity loss. This study clarified forest dynamics after intermediate disturbances and detected the tree distribution pattern in a dry evergreen forest (DEF). A 1 hectare (ha) permanent plot was set up in a lowland DEF in 2002 and all trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) larger than 4.5 cm were tagged, measured and identified. Tree monitoring was done in 2009 and 2016. In addition, the permanent plot was expanded to 3 ha, for studying the tree distribution pattern and all trees with DBH greater than 2 cm were included and their coordinates also recorded during 2016. The forest dynamics during 2002 to 2016 showed the net recruitment rate was higher than the mortality rate (2.58 and 2.35 %/year, respectively); however, it varied among periods. The mortality rate in the second period (2009-2016) was greater than in the first period (2002-2009), with rates of 4.71 and 2.64 %/year, respectively, due to disastrous flooding in 2003. A clumped distribution pattern based on the Morisita index was detected for all selected species, indicating habitat heterogeneity in which the physical environments were patched and induced the clumped distribution.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Phumphuang, W., Marod, D., Sungkaew, S., & Thinkampaeng, S. (2018). Forest Dynamics and Tree Distribution Patterns in Dry Evergreen Forest, Northeastern, Thailand. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 16(2), 58-67. Retrieved from https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/125029
Section
Original Research Articles

References

Alados CL, Pueyo Y, Giner ML, Navarro T, Escos J, Barroso F, Cabezudo B, Emlen JM. Quantitative characterization of the regressive ecological succession by fractal analysis of plant spatial patterns. Ecological Modelling 2003;163(1-2):1-17.
Anitha K, Joseph S, Chandran RJ, Ramasamy EV, Prasad SN. Tree species diversity and community com-position in a human-dominated tropical forest of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. Ecological Complexity 2010;7(2):217-24.
Armenteras D, Rodríguez N, Retana J. Are conservation strategies effective in avoiding the deforestation of the Colombian Guyana Shield? Biological Conservation 2009;142(7):1411-9.
Artsamart N. Comparison of Planting Techniques of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton and Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib at Saraburi Province. [dissertation]. Bangkok, Thailand, Kasetsart University; 2005. [In Thai]
Ashton PS. Speciation among tropical forest trees: some deductions in the light of recent evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 1969;1(1-2):155-96.
Austin MP. Spatial prediction of species distribution: an interface between ecological theory and statistical modelling. Ecological Modelling 2002;157(2-3):101-18.
Baker PJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Oliver CD, Ashton PS. Disturbance history and historical stand dynamics of a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Ecological Monographs 2005;75(3):317-43.
Bunyavejchewin S. Structure and dynamics in seasonal dry evergreen forest in northeastern Thailand. Journal of Vegetation Science 1999;10(6):787-92.
Bunyavejchewin S, LaFrankie JV, Baker PJ, Kanzaki M, Ashton PS, Yamakura T. Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant canopy dipterocarp species in a seasonal dry evergreen forest in western Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management 2003;175(1-3):87-101.
Cao M, Zou X, Warren M, Zhu H. Tropical forests of Xishuangbanna, China. Biotropica 2006;38(3):306-9.
Chairuangsirikul T. Structure of the Dry Evergreen Forest in Thailand. [dissertation]. Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University; 1986. [In Thai]
Chu G, Wang M, Zhang S. Spatial patterns and associations of dominant woody species in desert–oasis ecotone of South Junggar Basin, NW China. Journal of Plant Interactions 2014;9(1):738-44.
Condit R, Hubbell SP, Lafrankie JV, Sukumar R, Manokaran N, Foster RB, Ashton PS. Species-area and species-individual relationships for tropical trees: a comparison of three 50-ha plots. Journal of Ecology 1996;84:549-62.
Connell JH. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 1978;199(4335):1302-10.
Eiadthong W. Flora List in Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve and Forestry Field Training Station. [dissertation]. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Forest Biology, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University; 2000. [In Thai]
Elias R, Dias E, Pereira F. Disturbance, regeneration and the spatial pattern of tree species in Azorean mountain forests. Community Ecology 2011;12(1):23-30.
Feeley KJ, Davies SJ, Perez R, Hubbell SP, Foster RB. Directional changes in the species composition of a tropical forest. Ecology 2011;92(4):871-82.
Houghton RA. Temporal patterns of land-use change and carbon storage in China and tropical Asia. Science in China (Series C) 2002;45(Supp):10-7.
Kent M. Vegetation Description and Data Analysis: A Practical Approach. Oxford, United States of America: John Wiley and Sons; 2012.
Kumar R, Prasanna KT, Gowda B. Evaluation of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R. Parker as a potential source of biodiesel. Journal of Biochemical Technology 2014;3(5):128-33.
Lan G, Zhu H, Cao M, Hu Y, Wang H, Deng X, Zhou S, Cui J, Huang J, He Y. Spatial dispersion patterns of trees in a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. Ecological Research 2009;24(5): 1117-24.
Laurance WF. Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biological Conservation 1999;91(2-3):109-17.
Laurance WF, Ferreira LV, Rankin-de Merona JM, Laurance SG. Rain forest fragmentation and the dynamics of Amazonian tree communities. Ecology 1998;79(6):2032-40.
Laurance WF, Oliveira AA, Laurance SG, Condit R, Nascimento HEM, Sanchez-Thorin AC, Lovejoy TE, Andrade A, D’Angelo S, Ribeiro JE. Pervasive alteration of tree communities in undisturbed Amazonian forests. Nature 2004;428(6979):171-5.
Lee OHK, Williams GA. Spatial distribution patterns of Littoraria species in Hong Kong mangroves. Hydrobiologia 2002;481(1-3):137-45.
Lim Y, Na S-T, Lee S-J, Cho KH, Shin H. Spatial distribution patterns and implications for conservation of Scrophularia takesimensis (Scrophulariaceae), an endangered endemic species on Ulleung Island, Korea. Journal of Plant Biology 2008;51(3):213-20.
Luo Z, Ding B, Mi X, Yu J, Wu Y. Distribution patterns of tree species in an evergreen broadleaved forest in eastern China. Frontiers of Biology in China 2009;4(4):531-8.
Mani S, Parthasarathy N. Tree diversity and stand structure in inland and coastal tropical dry evergreen forests of peninsular India. Current Science 2006;90:1238-46.
Marod D, Duengkae P, Kutintara U, Sungkaew S, Wachrinrat C, Asanok L, Klomwattanakul N. The influences of an invasive plant species (Leucaena leucocephala) on tree regeneration in Khao Phuluang Forest, northeastern Thailand. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science) 2012;46:39-50.
Marod D, Kutintara U, Yarwudhi C, Tanaka H, Nakashisuka T. Structural dynamics of a natural mixed deciduous forest in western Thailand. Journal of Vegetation Science 1999;10(6):777-86.
Marod D, Kutintara U. Forest Ecology. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of Forest Biology, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University. 2009. [In Thai]
Miyamoto K, Suzuki E, Kohyama T, Seino T, Mirmanto E, Simbolon H. Habitat differentiation among tree species with small-scale variation of humus depth and topography in a tropical heath forest of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2003;19(1):43-54.
Mohandass D, Davidar P. Floristic structure and diversity of a tropical montane evergreen forest (shola) of the Nilgiri Mountains, southern India. Tropical Ecology 2009;50(2):219-29.
Morisita M. Measuring of the dispersion of individuals and analysis of the distribution patterns. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, ser E (Biology) 1959;2:215-35.
Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Da Fonseca GAB, Kent J. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 2000;403(6772):853-8.
Naidu MT, Kumar OA. Tree diversity, stand structure, and community composition of tropical forests in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 2016;9(3):328-34.
Niamrat W. Seedling Establishment of Climax Species under the Eucalyptus Plantation and Open Site at Wang Nam Khiew Forestry Student Training Station, Amphoe Wang Nam Khiew, Changwat Nakhon Ratchasima. [dissertation]. Bangkok, Thailand, Kasetsart University; 2003. [In Thai]
Oliveira APd, Schiavini I, Vale VSd, Lopes SdF, Arantes CdS, Gusson AE, Júnior JAP, Dias-Neto OC. Mortality, recruitment and growth of the tree communities in three forest formations at the Panga Ecological Station over ten years (1997-2007). Acta Botanica Brasilica 2014;28(2):234-48.
Osman KT. Forest Soils: Properties and Management. Chittagong, Bangladesh: Springer Science and Business Media; 2013.
Sahunalu P. Dynamics of size structure and tree population over 16 years in the long-term dynamics plot of Sakaerat deciduous dipterocarp forest, Northeastern, Thailand. Journal of Forest Management 2010;4(7):19-32.
Sakaerat Environmental Research Station. Meteorological observations [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2017 Dec 20]. Available from: http://www.tistr.or.th/sakaerat/ Meteorlogical.
Sakaerat Environmental Research Station. Meteorological observations [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2017 Nov 12]. Available from: http://www.tistr.or.th/sakaerat/ Meteorlogical.
Saldanha CJ, Nicolson DH. Flora of Hassan District, Karnataka, India. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Company; 1976.
Schnitzer SA, Carson WP. Treefall gaps and the maintenance of species diversity in a tropical forest. Ecology 2001;82(4):913-9.
Shannon CE, Weaver W. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Illinois, United States of America: University of Illinois Press; 1949.
Sherman RE, Fahey TJ, Martin PH, Battles JJ. Patterns of growth, recruitment, mortality and biomass across an altitudinal gradient in a neotropical montane forest, Dominican Republic. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2012;28(5):483-95.
Smitinand T. Thai Plant Names. Bangkok, Thailand: Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation; 2014. [in Thai]
Suzuki E, Ashton PS. Sepal and nut size ratio of fruits of Asian Dipterocarpaceae and its implications for dispersal. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1996;12(6): 853-70.