Main Article Content
The advancement of technology has had an effect on the rapid growth in an aviation industry, particularly passengers and international trade transportation. However, the aviation industry has been the target for terrorist attacks due to a highly commercial value, the increase in air traffic demands, and media attention when accidents occur. In addition, the nature of terrorist attacks has been changed from aircraft in flight to all areas of the aviation industry. As a result of this, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has set standards and recommended practices for aviation security in ANNEX 17 to prevent acts of unlawful interference. However, security measures will impact on operational delay at the airport, in particular the flow of passengers, baggage and freight. Therefore, ICAO has introduced facilitation in ANNEX 9 to reduce delays and improve the efficient control of processes. The airport operators should study and implement both ANNEX 9 and ANNEX 17 to achieve a balance between these two elements.
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