Main Article Content
Slash and Yaoi are types of creative works with homosexual relationship between male characters. Most of their audiences are female. Using textual analysis, this paper aims to identify the reasons that these female media consumers and female fan creators are attracted to Slash and Yaoi. The first author, as a prior Slash fan creator, also provides part of experiences to describe the themes found in existing fan studies. Five themes, both to confirm and to describe this phenomenon are (1) pleasure of same-sex relationship exposure, (2) homosexual marketing, (3) the erotic fantasy, (4) gender discrimination in primacy text, and (5) the need of equality in romantic relationship. This could be concluded that these female fans temporarily identify with a male character to have erotic interaction with another male one in Slash narrative. A reason that female fans need to imagine themselves as a male character, not a female one, is that lack of mainstream media consists of female characters with a leading role, besides the romance genre. However, the need of gender equality, as the reason of female fans who consume Slash text, might be the belief of fan scholars that could be applied in only some contexts.
The manuscript submitted for publication must be the original version, submitted only to this particular journal with no prior acceptance for publication elsewhere in other academic journals. The manuscript must also not violate the copyright issue by means of plagiarism.
Arunrangsiwed, P. (2015). Equality, friendship, and violence in slash or yaoi fan art. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 9(12), 3946-3950.
Bahoric, K. & Swaggerty, E. (2015). Fanfiction: Exploring in-and out-of-school literacy practices. Effective Writing Instruction: Colordo Reading Journal, Summer 2015.
Baxter, C. M. (2014). The challenge of happily ever after: how once upon a time fanfic fairy tales model strategies for ordinary life Challenges (Master's Thesis, Brigham Young University).
Black, R. W. (2005). Access and affiliation: The literacy and composition practices of English-language learners in an online fanfiction community. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 49, 118-128.
Black, R. W. (2006). Language, culture, and identity in online fanfiction. E-learning and digital media, 3(2), 170-184.
Bloem, W. (2014). Japanese fanspeak in the Anglophone manga and anime fan culture (Master's thesis, Leiden University).
Bolt, W. L. (2004). The hidden authors: A study and survey of fan fiction writers (Senior Honors Project Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2004).
Brennan, J. (2013). Slash manips: Remixing popular media with gay pornography. M/C Journal, 16(4), 1-10.
Bustos, M. (2013). Transformaciones del deseo femenino: Análisis de los relatos “fanfics” con temática homosexual escritos por mujeres (Master's Thesis, Universidad de Chile).
Cavcic, A. (2017). Boys’ love for the love of it: Progressive prosumers and the proliferation of queer culture through manga (Doctoral Dissertation, Murdoch University).
Chen, J. S. (2007). A study of fan culture: Adolescent experiences with animé/manga doujinshi and cosplay in Taiwan. Visual Arts Research, 33(1),14-24.
Cumberland, S. (2003). Private uses of cyberspace: Women, desire, and fan culture. In Rethinking media change: The aesthetics of transition, 261-279.
Foster, G. M. (2015). What to do if your inner tomboy is a homo: Straight women, bisexuality, and pleasure in m/m gay romance fictions, Journal of Bisexuality, 15(4), 509-531.
Graffeo, C. (2014). The great mirror of fandom: Reflections of (and on) Otaku and Fujoshi in anime and manga (Master's Thesis, University of Central Florida).
Hata, M. & Ieshima, A. (2014). A Transdisciplinary approach to comics: An overview of Journal articles on comics in Japanese gender studies. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Comics (pp. 69-88).
Hemmann, K. (2015). Queering the media mix: The female gaze in Japanese fan comics. Transformative Works and Cultures, 20.
Ishikawa, Y. (2008). Yaoi: Fan art in Japan. Comparative studies on urban cultures, 11-13.
Íslands, H. (2017). Expressions in fan culture: Cosplay, fan art, fan fiction (Bachelor’s thesis, University of Iceland).
Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual poachers. Television fans and participatory culture: Television fans & participatory culture. NY: Routledge.
Joyce, S. (2016). Yaoi and BL: The Japanese female obsession with male homosexuality and its effects on pop culture media (Thesis, Carthage College).
Kamise, Y. (2008). Attitude of Japanese adolescents toward comic magazines: Characteristics of "boys love" ("shonen-ai", "m/m slash") readers. Presented in The 29th International Congress of Psychology (20– 25 July 2008, Berlin).
Kustritz, A. (2003). Slashing the romance narrative. The Journal of American Culture, 26(3), 371-384.
Kwon, J. (2014). Spectacularizing the homosexual body: the secret rendezvous among global gay media, local straight women, and the media industry in South Korea (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois).
Kwon, J. (2016). Co-mmodifying the gay body: Globalization, the film industry and female prosumers in the contemporary Korean mediascape. International Journal of Communication, 10, 18.
Lam, F. Y. (2010). Comic market: How the world’s biggest amateur comic fair shaped Japanese dōjinshi culture. Mechademia, 5(1), 232-248.
Lamerichs, N. (2014). The Ashgate research companion to fan cultures. In Embodied fantasy: The affective space of anime conventions, UK: Routledge, pp. 263.
Levi, A. (2009). North Americans reaction to yaoi. In M. I. West (Ed.), North American reactions to Yaoi. The Japanification of children’s popular culture: From Godzilla to Miyazaki (pp. 147-173). UK: Scarecrow Press.
Lin, C.S. (2013). Revealing the “essence” of things: Using phenomenology in LIS research. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries, 4, 469-478.
Lindström, C. (2017). ‘The power of characterization’ A comparative analysis of the transformative works created by the English-language and Japanese-language fandoms of BBC Sherlock (Bachelor’s Thesis, Stockholm University).
Liwjaroen, C. (2016). Interpersonal communication: Using social messaging as a communication channel to reduce task conflict and enhance team’s cooperation for organizations. Executive Journal, 36(1), 79-87.
Macdonald, I. W. (2016). The object that is not yet an object: the screen idea. In Atas do VI Encontro Anual da AIM (pp. 10-26). Lisboa: AIM.
Madill, A. (2016). Men on the market: Feminist analysis of age-stratified male–male romance in Boys’ Love manga. Studies in Comics, 7(2), 265-287.
McLelland, M. (2005). The world of yaoi: The internet, censorship and the global 'boys' love' fandom. Australian Feminist Law Journal, 23, 61-77.
Mclelland, M., & Yoo, S. (2007). The international yaoi boys’ love fandom and the regulation of virtual child pornography: The implications of current legislation. Sexual Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, 4(1), 93-104.
McLelland, M.J. (2010). Australia's proposed internet filtering system: its implications for animation, comic and gaming (ACG) and slash fan communities. Media international Australia, incorporating Culture & policy, 134, 7-19.
Meyer, M. D. (2013). Slashing Smallville: The interplay of text, audience and production on viewer interpretations of homoeroticism. Sexuality & Culture, 17(3), 476-493.
Neville, L. (2015). Male gays in the female gaze: women who watch m/m pornography. Porn Studies, 2(2), 192-207.
Pagliassotti, D. (2008). Better than romance? Japanese BL manga and the subgenre of male/male romantic fiction. In Boys' love manga: essays on the sexual ambiguity and cross-cultural fandom of the genre, WA: McFarland & Co.
Pande, R. (2017). Squee from the margins: Investigating the operations of racial/cultural/ethnic identity in media fandom (Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Western Australia).
Patkachar, U. (2017). The format of narrative in Thai female ghost films. Executive Journal, 37(1), 75-82.
Rahmawati, E. Y. (2017). Aktivitas fandom dalam mengaktualisasi fenomena slash pairing pada akun media sosial instagram (Studi etnografi virtual pada fandom boyband EXO di media sosial Instagram) (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Airlangga).
Robinson, S. (2014). Fake geek girl: the gender conflict in nerd culture (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).
Salmon, C. (2015). The impact of prenatal testosterone on female interest in slash fiction. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 9(3), 161-169.
Salmon, C., & Symons, D. (2004). Slash fiction and human mating psychology. Journal of Sex Research, 41(1), 94-100.
Santos, M. (2014). Writing about Harry Potter boinking: The reality of fantasy in pornographic fanfiction (Thesis, University of Ottawa).
Schmitt, K. (2011). Exploring dress and behavior of the emo subculture (Master's Thesis, Kennesaw State University).
Scodari, C. (2003). Resistance re-examined: Gender, fan practices, and science fiction television. Popular Communication, 1(2), 111-130.
Sheehan, K. N. (2017). The otaku phenomenon: pop culture, fandom, and religiosity in contemporary Japan (Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisville).
Steijn, B. (2016). Dissolving heteronormativity through the analysis of slash fiction and boys’ love manga (Master's Thesis, Leiden University).
Tanaka, H., & Ishida, S. (2015). Enjoying manga as Fujoshi: Exploring its innovation and potential for social change from a gender perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Science, 10(1), 77-85.
Thaipradit, K., & Treeratanaporn, T. (2016). Social commerce: The comparative selective different characteristics among Facebook, LINE, and Instagram. Executive Journal, 36(2), 24-38.
Tian, X. (2015). Slashing Three Kingdoms: A case study in fan production on the Chinese web. Modern Chinese Literature and Culture, 27(1), 224-277.
Tosenberger, C. (2008). Homosexuality at the online Hogwarts: Harry Potter slash fanfiction. Children’s Literature, 36(1), 185-207.
Vo, T.C. (2017). Cultural representation of sex and gender in manga (Thesis, San Francisco State University).
Wang, Y. (2017). Resistance and compromise under power structures of sexuality: A case study on real person slash fans in China (Master's Thesis, Lund University).
Wei, J. (2014). Queer encounters between Iron Man and Chinese boys' love fandom. Transformative Works and Cultures, 17, 1-36.
Zhang, C. (2014). My double love of boys': Chinese women's fascination with Boys' Love fiction (Master's Thesis, Iowa State University).
Zheng, X. (2016). Borderless fandom and contemporary popular cultural scene in Chinese cyberspace (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Washington).
Zsila, Á & Demetrovics, Z. (2017). The boys’ love phenomenon: A literature review. Journal of Popular Romance Studies, 6, 1-16.