The Effects of Negative Feedback on Intention to Improve Efficiency of Job and Work Performance of Generation Y

Main Article Content

Bussakorn Khumhome Mullika Sungsanit


This research aimed to study the effects of negative feedback on intention to improve job efficiency and work performance for generation Y employees. The research participants were 31 employees aged between 18-35 years. A quasi-experimental approach (A-B-A design) was conducted to examine the effect. There were 9 data collections (once a week) which included questionnaires and performance assessment forms. Then, the data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The study found that the intention to improve job efficiency during the experimental period was higher than the pre-experimental period at a level of significance of 0.01. There was no statistically significance difference between the experimental period and
the post-experimental period. The level of work performance during the experimental period was higher than for the pre-experimental period at a level of significance of 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental period and the post-experimental period. Thus, it can be concluded that negative feedbacks had a positive effect on the intention to improve job efficiency and work performance for employees.


Article Details

Research Articles


Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior Human Decision Process 50(2): 179-211.

Anseel, F., Beatty, A. S., Shen, W., Lievens, F. and Sackett, P. R. (2015) How are we doing after 30 years? A meta-analytic review of the antecedents and outcomes of feedback-seeking behavior. Journal of Management 41(1): 318-348.

Beach, K. (2013) The Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback on Novices and Experts. (Master's Thesis). Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA.

Belschak, F. D. and Hartog, D. N. (2009) Consequences of positive and negative feedback. Organizational Behavior Human Decision Process 50(2): 179-211.

Bodroza, B. (2011) Cognitive and affective reactions to success and failure: The quality of feedback as the determinant of self-verifying and self-enhancing motivation. Psihologija 44(2): 149-166.

Boonjai, S. (2012) Development and Validation of Research Instruments: Psychometric Properties. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Printing House.

Boudrias, J., Bernaud, J. and Plunier, P. (2014) Candidates' integration of individual psychological assessment feedback. Journal of Managerial Psychology 29(3): 341-359.

Brown, M., Kulik, C. T. and Lim, V. (2016) Managerial tactics for communicating negative performance feedback. Personnel Review 45(5): 969-987.

Burke, M. E. (2004) Generational Differences Survey Report. Alexandria, VA.: Society for Human Resource Management, United States.

Dobbelaer, M. J., Prins, F. J. and Dongen, D. V. (2013) The Impact of Feedback Training for Inspectors. European Journal of Training and Development 37(1): 86-104.

Ellison, K. N. P. (2015) How Associations of Feedback Delivery Influence Performance Improvement in Operations Managers: A Transfer of Training Study. (Ph.D. Dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Emmerik, I. H., Bakker, A. B. and Euwema, M. C. (2008) What happens after the developmental assessment center? Development Journal of Management Development 27(5): 513-527.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G. and Buchner, A. (2007) G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods 39(2): 175-191.

Fleiss, J. L. (1971) Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York: Wiley.

Forza, C. and Salvador, F. (2000) Assessing some distinctive dimensions of performance feedback information in high performing plants. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 20(3): 359-385.

Glass, A. (2007) Understanding generational differences for competitive success. Industrial and Commercial Training 39(2): 98-103.

Hammill, G. (2005) Mixing and managing four generations of employees. [Online URL:] accessed on April 5, 2017.

Howe, N. and Strauss, W. (2007) The Next 20 Years: How customer and workforce attitudes will evolve. Harvard Business Review 85(7-8): 41-52.

Hu, X., Chen, Y. and Tian, B. (2015) Feeling better about self after receiving negative feedback: When the sense that ability can be improved is activated. The Journal of Psychology 150(1): 72-87.

Ilies, R., Pater, I. E. and Judge, T. (2007). Differential affective reactions to negative and positive feedback, and the role of self-esteem. Journal of Managerial Psychology 22(6): 590-609.

Intelligence Center for Food Industry. (2017) Employment trends in food industry. [Online URL: =1605] accessed on April 1, 2017.

Kluger, A. and DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin 119(2): 254-284.

Kogler, C., Mittone, L. and Kirchler, E. (2016) Delayed feedback on tax audits affects compliance and fairness perceptions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 124(2016): 81-87.

Kuvaas, B. (2011) A Test of Hypotheses derived from self-determination theory among public sector employees. Employee Relations 31(1): 39-56.

Leitner, J. B. (2014) Strategic engagement regulation an integration of self-enhancement and engagement. (Ph.D. Dissertation). University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Linderbaum, B. A. and Levy, P. E. (2010) The development and validation of the feedback orientation scale (FOS). Journal of Management 36(6): 1372-1405.

Lipman, V. (2016) 65% of employees want more feedback (So why don't they get it?). [Online URL: /victorlipman/2016/08/08/65-of-employees-want-more-feedback-so-why-dont-they-get-it/#403d6101914a] accessed on April 12, 2017.

Locke, E. A. and Latham, G. P. (2002) Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American Psychologist 57 (9): 705-715.

Loew, L. (2015) Performance management 2015: Coaching for development needed. [Online URL: https://www. performance-management-2015_ar_brandon-hall.pdf?ext=.pdf90] accessed on April 1, 2017.

Lunenburg, F. C. (2011) Expectancy theory of motivation: Motivating by alerting expectations. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration 15(1): 1-6.

Mook, D. G. (1983) In defense of external invalidity. American Psychologist 38(4): 379–387.

Niemann, J., Wisse, B., Rus, D., Yperen, N. W. and Sassenberg, K. (2014) Anger and attitudinal reactions to negative feedback: The effects of emotional instability and power. Motivation and Emotion 38: 687-699.

Office of Industrial Economics (2017) 1st Quarter Industry Overview Report Year 2017. [Online URL: overview/r_janmar60.pdf] accessed on April 2, 2017.

PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2011) Millennials at work reshaping the workplace. [Online URL:] accessed on April 12, 2017.

Pussanee, K. (2003) The effect of professional value instillation on the intention to perform ethical behaviors of nursing students. (M.N.S. Thesis). Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.

Rickards, C. A. (2011) An investigation into the process of receiving personality feedback and recipients' reactions to the feedback. (Ph.D. Dissertation). University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.

Rijt, J. V., Bossche, P. V. and Segers, M. S. (2013) Understanding informal feedback seeking in the workplace. European Journal of Training and Development 37(1): 72-85.

Rummler, G. A. and Brache, A. P. (2013) Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Rungarun, S. (2013) The effects of feedback on perceived performance improvement and satisfaction of the agent who have different experience. (M.S. Thesis). National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok.

Sabattini, L., Warren, A., Dinolfo, S., Falk, E. and Castro, M. (2010) Beyond generational differences: Bridging gender and generational diversity at work. New York: Catalyst Publication.

Sandelands, L., Glynn, A. M. and Larson, R. J. (1991) Control theory and social behavior in the workplace. Human Relations 44(10): 1107-1130.

Shu, T. and Lam, S. (2016) Is it always good to provide positive feedback to students? The moderating effects of culture and regulatory focus. Learning and Individual Differences 49: 171-177.

Steelman, L. A. and Rutkowski, K. A. (2004) Moderators of employee reactions to negative feedback. Journal of Managerial Psychology 19(1), 6-18.

Steelman, L. A., Levy, P. E. and Snell, A. F. (2004) The Feedback Environment Scale: Construct Definition, Measurement, and Validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement 64(1): 165-184.

Strijbos, J., Narciss, S. and Dünnebier, K. (2010) Peer feedback content and sender's competence level in academic writing revision tasks: Are they critical for feedback perceptions and efficiency? Learning and Instruction 20(4): 291-303.

Suchart, P. (2012) Social science research methodology. (2nd ed.). Bangkok: Samlada limited partnership.

Svensson, N. (2015) Subjective Experiences of Creative Work after Negative Feedback. Thinking Skills and Creativity 15: 26-36.

Tolbize, A. (2008) Generational differences in the workplace. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Research and Training Center on Community Living.

Woo, S. E., Sims, C. S., Rupp, D. E. and Gibbons, A. M. (2008) Development engagement within and following developmental assessment centers: Considering feedback favorability and self-assessor agreement. Personnel Psychology 61(4): 727-759.

Zenger, J. and Folkman, J. (2014) Your employees want the negative feedback you hate to give. [Online URL:] accessed on April 2, 2017.

Zheng, X., Diaz, I., Jing, Y. and Chiaburu, D. S. (2015) Positive and negative supervisor developmental feedback and task-performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 36(2): 212-232.