Lifelong Learning for Personal and Professional Development in Malaysia

Main Article Content

Su-Hie Ting

Abstract

The study examined economic and non-economic benefits of non-formal lifelong learning for participants. A survey of 1,923 participants of non-formal lifelong learning programmes offered by six ministries in Malaysia showed that 50% participated in programmes that are related to the jobs and 50% participated in non job-related programmes. In the category of job-related lifelong learning programmes, participants of technical skills-based programmes are the most likely to enjoy salary increment and promotion. For others, the employment benefits are in the form of additional opportunities for training and increased job responsibilities. Besides bringing about personal development, non job-related lifelong learning programmes also endowed participants with useful skills and knowledge to earn additional income, get a job, and set up small businesses. For lifelong learning programmes to bring about better economic returns, the findings indicate that the programmes need to be structured based on skill levels (basic to advanced) and market surveys need be conducted to determine industry needs.

Keywords

Article Details

Section
Original Articles

References

Ambrósio, S., e Sá, M. H. A., & Simões, A. R. (2014). Lifelong learning in higher education: the development of non-traditional adult students' plurilingual repertoires. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3798-3804.

Amdan, M. K., Abdullah, S. N. Z., & Johan, M. H. (2014). Persepsi masyarakat setempat terhadap program kursus pendek dalam membantu meningkatkan ekonomi keluarga dan kebolehdapatan pekerjaan di Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Kolej Komuniti Wilayah Sarawak (pp. 125-136). Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia: Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading.

Anderson, R. E., & Darkenwald, G. G. (1979a). Participation and persistence in American adult education: Implications for public policy and future research from a multivariate analysis of a national data base. Direction Papers in Lifelong Learning.

Anderson, R. E., & Darkenwald, G. G. (1979b). The adult part-time learner in colleges and universities: A clientele analysis. Research in Higher Education, 10(4), 357-370.

Awuor, R. A., & Parks, D. (2015). Development of graduate education programs in the age of broken borders. Catalyst, 11(1), 41-45.

Babbie, E. R. (1973). Survey research methods. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Belanger, P., & Valdivielso, S. (1997). The emergence of learning societies: Who participates in adult learning? Tarrytown, NY: Elsevier Science Inc.

Berker, A., & Horn, L. (2003). Work first, study second: Adult undergraduates who combine employment and postsecondary enrollment. (NCES 2003-167). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC.

Borges, B., & Roger, K. (2014). Lifelong learning as a source of well-being and successful aging. Revista Série-Estudos, 38, 35-46.

Brookfield, S. (1985). A critical definition of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 36(1), 44-49. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0001848185036001005

Check, J., & Schutt, R. K. (2012). Research methods in education. London: SAGE Publications.

Chong, S. C., & Abdul Rahman, H. S. (2014). Persepsi peserta kursus pendek ke atas program pembelajaran sepanjang hayat (PSH) di Kolej Komuniti Miri. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Kolej Komuniti Wilayah Sarawak (pp. 171-190). Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia: Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading.

Chow, T. K., Amdan, M. K., & Liu, T. H. (2014). Persepsi masyarakat setempat terhadap pembelajaran sepanjang hayat (PSH) di Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Kolej Komuniti Wilayah Sarawak (pp. 137-153). Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia: Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading.

Clemans, A., Newton, A., Guevara, R., & Thompson, S. (2012). Lifelong Learning and Employment Prospects: An Australian case. Report prepared by the Faculty of Education, Monash University and Adult Learning Australia for UNESCO, Bangkok. https://ala.asn.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/UNESCOWholeFinalDraft17Sept.pdf

Coffield, F. (1999). Breaking the consensus: lifelong learning as social control. British Educational Research Journal, 25(4), 479-499.

Cohn, E., & Addison, J. T. (1998). The economic returns to lifelong learning in OECD countries. Education Economics, 6 (3), 253-307.

Curtin, R. et al. (2005). Changes in telephone survey nonresponse over the past quarter century. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69 (1), 87–98.

Cropley, A. J. (1980). Lifelong learning and systems of education: An overview. In A. J. Cropley (Ed.), Towards a system of lifelong education: Some practical considerations (pp. 1-15). Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Education.

Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2014). Population by ethnic group, MALAYSIA, 2014 http://pqi.stats.gov. my/result.php?token=794549197fd88eb2bbef117e07bf9525

Daehlen, M., & Ure, O. B. (2009). Low-skilled adults in formal continuing education: does their motivation differ from other learners? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 68(5), 661-674.

Field, J. (2000). Lifelong learning and the new educational order. Trent, United Kingdom: Trentham Books. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/43589_8.pdf

Figueiredo, R. J. P., & Elkins, Z. (2002). Are patriots bigots? An inquiry into the vices of ingroup pride. American Journal of Political Science, 47, 171–188.

Gorard, S., Rees, G., & Fevre, R. (1999). Two dimensions of time: The changing social context of lifelong learning. Studies in the Education of Adults, 31(1), 35-48. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ583080

Hammond, C. (2004). Impacts of lifelong learning upon emotional resilience, psychological and mental health: fieldwork evidence. Oxford Review of Education, 30(4), 551-568.

Houle, C. O. (1988). The inquiring mind: A study of the adult who continues to learn. ED365848 http://eric. ed.gov/?id=ED365848

Jenkins, A., Vignoles, A., Wolf, A., & Galindo-Rueda, F. (2003). The determinants and labour market effects of lifelong learning. Applied economics, 35 (16), 1711-1721.

Kellstedt, P., & Whitten, G. (2013). The fundamentals of political science research. Cambridge University Press.

Kidder, L. H. (1981). Research methods in social relations. New York, Holt: Rinehart & Winston.

Kolej Komuniti Kos Lanas (2015). Karnival dan Seminar Pembelajaran Sepanjang Hayat (#My3L – Life Long Learning) http://www.kkklk.edu.my/index.php/koleksi-berita/247-karnival-dan-seminar-pembelajaran-sepanjang-hayat-my3l-life-long-learning

Konrad, J. (2005). Learning motivation of lower qualified workers. Centre for Applied Research in Education, University of East Anglia.

Kyndt, E., Michielsen, M., Van Nooten, L., Nijs, S., & Baert, H. (2011). Learning in the second half of the career: Stimulating and prohibiting reasons for participation in formal learning activities. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 30(5), 681-699.

Lee, C. P. C., & Michael, B. (2014). Persepsi pelajar terhadap program sijil aplikasi perisian computer di Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Kolej Komuniti Wilayah Sarawak (pp. 154-170). Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia: Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading.

Lowe, J., & Gayle, V. (2015). From lifelong learning to youth employment: Back to the future for higher education in Scotland’s colleges. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 10.1080/0309877X.2014.971104

Majhanovich, S., & Napier, D. B. (2014). Lifelong learning in the new millennium: Voices from the XV World Congress of Comparative Education Societies. International Review of Education, 60(4), 449-462.

Merriam, S. B., & Kee, Y. (2014). Promoting community wellbeing: The case for lifelong learning for older adults. Adult Education Quarterly, 64 (2), 128-144.

Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (2012a). Blueprint on enculturation of lifelong learning in Malaysia 2011-2012. Putrajaya, Malaysia: Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia. Accessed http://www.mohe. gov.my/portal/en/penerbitan-kpt-selanjutnya/452-blueprint-psh.html\

Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. (2012b). Direktori Pembelajaran Sepanjang Hayat Peringkat Nasional 2012/2013. Putrajaya, Malaysia: Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia. Accessed May 3, 2013, from http://www.mohe.gov.my/portal/images/utama/penerbitan/direktoriPSH2012.pdf

Ministry of Education Malaysia (2015). Education Blueprint 2015-2025: Higher Education. Putrajaya: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

Mohd Zaitun, M. F., Mohd Khalil, M. K. N., & Dady, Y. X. (2014). Halatuju pelajar-pelajar sijil modular kebangsaan (landskap) Kolej Komuniti selepas bergraduat: Satu kajian kes. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Kolej Komuniti Wilayah Sarawak (pp. 18-27). Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia: Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading.

Mustapha, R., & Abdullah, A. (2006). Malaysia transitions toward a knowledge-based economy The Journal of Technology Studies, pp. 51-61. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ905143.pdf

Nulty, D. D. (2008). The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: What can be done? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(3), 301–314.

Plewis, I., & Preston, J. (2001). Evaluating the benefits of lifelong learning: a framework. Order, 85473(656), 5-6.

Richardson, J. T. E. (2005). Instruments for obtaining student feedback: a review of the literature. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(4), 387–415.

Riddell, S., Weedon, E., & Holford, J. (2014). Lifelong learning and higher education in Europe 1995–2011: widening and/or narrowing access? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 33(1), 1-6.

Rothes, A., Lemos, M. S., & Gonçalves, T. (2014). Motives and beliefs of learners enrolled in adult education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 939-948.

Sharan, B. M., & Kee, Y. (2014). Promoting community wellbeing: The case for lifelong learning for older adults. Adult Education Quarterly, 64 (2), 128–144. DOI: 10.1177/0741713613513633

Soong, G. P., & Ting, S. H. (2014). Non-Chinese working adults’ formal learning of Mandarin Chinese in Sarawak. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Kolej Komuniti Wilayah Sarawak (pp. 96-109). Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia: Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading.

The University of Queensland (2015). Continuing education. http://www.icte.uq.edu.au/continuing-education

Tight, M. (1998a). Lifelong learning: Opportunity or compulsion? British Journal of Educational Studies, 46(3), 251-263.

Tight, M. (1998b). Education, education, education! The vision of lifelong learning in the Kennedy, Dearing and Fryer Reports. Oxford Review of Education, 24(4), 473-485.

Utusan Melayu (Ogos 26, 2014). 1.3 juta rakyat dapat manfaat program PHJ. http://ww1.utusan.com.my/utusan/ Dalam_Negeri/20140826/dn_09/13-juta-rakyat-dapat-manfaat-program-PHJ#ixzz3YTswEwUn

World Economic Forum. (2012). Global population ageing: Peril or promise? Retrieved from http://www3. weforum.org/docs/WEF_GAC_GlobalPopulationAgeing_Report_2012.pdf

Zunzunegui, M. V., Alvarado, B. E., Del Ser, T., & Otero, A. (2003). Social networks, social integration, and social engagement determine cognitive decline in community-dwelling Spanish older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 58B(2), S93–S100.