“The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of the work of the authors and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing: the author, the journal editors, and the peer reviewer.” (Elsevier, Publishing Ethics Guidelines)


Original WorkHBDS expects that manuscripts submitted to be considered for publication are the author(s) own original work, are not currently under review elsewhere, and have not been previously published in any language. Manuscripts should not “recycle” essentially the same material that has been published elsewhere. Turnitin software is used to check for plagiarism and/or previous publication, and HBDS rejects articles that have substantial proportions of text that are copied from other sources.

Authorship: The names of authors appearing on manuscripts should be limited to individuals who have made significant contributions to the article. For articles written by academics, authorship credit should be based on satisfying all three of the conditions specified by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE): 1) making substantial contributions to the conception, design, or analysis/interpretation of data; 2) drafting or critically revising an article for important intellectual content; and 3) granting final approval of the version to be published. For articles authored by graduate students, conditions 1 and 3 must be met.

Individuals who have provided technical assistance or support may be thanked by mentioning their contributions in the Acknowledgements. The corresponding author should ensure that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper, and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Accuracy: Authors of original research papers should present an accurate account of their work along with a balanced discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper; adding data or removal of outlier results are unacceptable. Conclusions should be based on evidence presented in the paper, not on personal opinions.

Errors: If significant errors/inaccuracies become apparent after an article has already been submitted, HBDS expects authors to immediately contact the Editorial Staff so that appropriate corrections may be made in a timely manner.

Acknowledgement of Sources: A research paper builds upon previously published work. Author(s) should paraphrase ideas or results that have been previously published elsewhere in their own words, along with citing these works in the paper and listing them in the references. Making statements of facts or ideas without citing evidence to back up these statements is not good research practice.

Disclosure of Financial Support and Conflicts of Interest: Financial support received for research and the paper writing process should be disclosed in the acknowledgments, and any potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed to the HBDS editorial team when a manuscript is first submitted.

Protection of Human SubjectsHBDS expects that experiments using human subjects have been conducted in compliance with international standards and research protocols, and that they received prior review and approval from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or ethics committee. Such approval and the approving entity’s name should be specified in the Methods section.