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For the past several decades, the Isan vocal form, molam,
has utilized modern musical instruments, such as the saxophone,
electric keyboard, electric organ, percussion drums, electric
guitars and others, properly combined with the kaen, the single
Isan musical instruments that accompanies the different forms
of molam contemporary molam performances, story-based
molam drama, lam sing, lam phloen, and molam country songs.
This research, therefore, intends to investigate the evolution
of the use of saxophone as an accompaniment to molam
performances in the Isan region in northeast Thailand. This
research aims to study: 1) the evolution of the role of the
saxophone in molam performances, and 2) the different
techniques of saxophone playing to accompany molam singing.
This research was qualitative research ,The data in this study
were collected from documents and field study, with the use of
interviews and observation forms. The results of the study are
In its early stage of evolution in molam performances,
the saxophone was added together with a keyboard or an organ,
as accompaniment. Several artists and musicians are to be
credited in introducing the use of saxophone in molam singing.
The first to make use of saxophone to lam phloen performances
was Mr.SamranBupphawat. Mr.KhambuPhinthong initiated playing
the saxophone in molam mu performances. Mr. Bunmee Na
Phijit made the first recorded saxophone to accompany molam
concerts. At present, saxophone accompaniment in molam
performances had been widely popular.
Saxophone playing in molam performances has various
techniques: 1) Luk yon is played with the stress placed on the
rhythm. 2) Lukthai is a technique of releasing the air stream to
gradually shift the pitch from one note to another. 3) Finger
vibration is a technique of rapidly vibrating and alternately
pressing the fingers on different notes back and forth. 4) Lukdern
is played by quickly blowing and releasing the sound. 5) Luksaderd
is a technique with the blowing stress placed on lift strokes to
delay the beats. 6) Luknoksiang is a technique in which another
melody in the Dorian mode alternates with the main melody as
a form of variation.