Clinical Characteristics, Parasite Diagnosis and Hematological Parameters of Malaria in Surat Thani Province, Thailand
Background: Malaria infection is still considered to be a major public health problem in Thailand where risk of infection is related to one or more of the Plasmodium species. In this study, a retrospective clinical and laboratory based data analysis of malaria patients at Phanom Hospital, Surat Thani Province, Thailand was collected and analyzed.
Methods: Data of patients with malaria infection during the period 2012-2015 were retrieved. This data included demographic details (age of patient, gender, and nationality), clinical characteristics, parasite diagnosis (days of fever, time of admission, diastolic pressure, body weight, and body mass index), and hematological parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration [MCHC]).
Results: A total of 395 malaria patients were recorded during the years 2012 to 2015. Most of them were admitted to Phanom Hospital during 2013 (215 cases, 54.4%). The mean age of patients was 30.6±17.1 years old. Most patients were male (253 cases, 64.1%) and of Thai nationality (349 cases, 88.4%). Mean days of fever before patients came to hospital was 4 days. Most patients (262 cases, 66.3%) came to hospital between 6 am-11.59 am. Three hundred and fifty-five patients with malaria (97.5%) were positive for Plasmodium falciparum infection. All three hematological parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit and MCHC) were significantly lower (P value<0.05) in patients with P.falciparum compared to patients with P.vivax. Neutrophils count and Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were significantly decreased in patients who came late to hospital (P value<0.05). In addition, lymphocyte and monocytes were significantly increased in patients who came late to hospital (P value<0.05).Conclusion: During the years of 2012 to 2015, patients infected with falciparum malaria was highest in the year 2013. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCHC were significantly lower in patients with P.vivax compared to P.falciparum. Neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocytes, and MCV were significantly changed in patients who came late to hospital. This information would assist in understanding the pathogenesis and characteristic of malaria infection in Southern Thailand.
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