Comparison of the Effectiveness of Work Integrated Learning and Computer Simulation Teaching Method for Theoretical Subjects in Hospitality Industry Curriculum

Main Article Content

Wanamina Waehama


For some time, Work Integrated Learning (WIL) has been a part of the hospitality sector's educational programs and curricula, attempting to provide hospitality industry students with a fundamental grounding in the day-to-day operations of an actual hospitality organization. An alternative to WIL is computer simulations, which may be able to impart some of the skills offered by WIL without reducing academic performance or subjecting the students to needless stress. CESIM Hospitality is an online example of such a simulation, but it is rather poorly studied. In this study a multiple choice test was used to measure the effectiveness of both a WIL programme and CESIM Hospitality, in order to compare their effectiveness as teaching tools. Students who had used CESIM performed significantly better in the test than those who participated in WIL, suggesting that the simulation should be integrated into hospitality training curricula. However, no correlation was found between the simulation scores and the test results of students who had used the simulation, suggesting that CESIM Hospitality should not be used to determine academic ability.



Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บทความวิจัย (Research Article)


Adobor, H. & Daneshfar, A. (2006). Management simulations: determining their effectiveness. The Journal of Management Development, 25(2), 151.

Aggett, M. & Busby, G. (2011) Opting out of internship: perceptions of hospitality, tourism and events management undergraduates at a British university. The Journal of Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism. 10(1), 106-113.

Barron, P. & Ananstasiadou, C. (2009) Student part-time employment: implications, challenges and opportunities for higher education. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 21(2), 140-153.

Beggs, B., Ross, C.M. & Goodwin, B. (2014) A comparison of student and practitioner perspectives of the travel and tourism internship. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education. 7(1), 31-39.

Bowness, A. (2004) Hands-on learning through computer simulations. Canadian HR Reporter, 17(16), 15.

Carney, C., McNeish, S. & McColl, J. (2005) The impact of part time employment on students' health and academic performance: a Scottish perspective. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29(4), 307-319.

CESIM Business Simulations (2010) Cesim Business Simulations Youtube. Retrieved from

CESIM Hospitality (2016) Hotel and restaurant manager simulation game. Retrieved from

CESIM Business Simulations (2017) Experiential learning with state-of-the-art business simulations. Retrieved from

Chen, B.T. & Gursoy, D. (2008) Preparing students for careers in the leisure, recreation, and tourism field. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 7(3), 21-41.

Chuang, N.K., Goh, B.K., Stout, B.L. & Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (2007) Hospitality undergraduate students' career choices and factors influencing commitment to the profession. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education. 19(4), 28-37.

Curtis, S. (2005) Support for working undergraduates: the view of academic staff. Education & training, 47(7), 496-505.

Dahiya, A. (2013) Hospitality and tourism education in India: in search of innovative programmes. Productivity. 53(4), 358-370.

Dickerson, J.P. & Kline, S.F. (2008) The early career impact of the co-op commitment in hospitality curricula. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism. 8(1), 3-22.

Holmes, V. (2008) Working to live: why university students balance full-time study and employment. Education & Training, 50(4), 305-314.

Jackson, J. (2014) Factors influencing job attainment in recent bachelor graduates: evidence from Australia. Higher Education. 68(1), 135-153.

Kikot, T., Costa, G., Magalhães, R. & Fernandes, S. (2013) Simulation games as tools for integrative dynamic learning: The case of the management course at the University of Algarve. Procedia Technology, 9, 11-21.

Kikot, T., Costa, G., Fernandes, S. & Aguas, P. (2014) Why use-centred game-based learning in higher education? The case of CESIM SimBrand. Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, 2(3), 229-241.

Fengfeng, K. (2009). A qualitative meta-analysis of computer games as learning tools. In R.E. Ferdig (eds.), Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education. IGI Global, PA: Hershey.

Fournier, H. & Ineson E.M. (2010) Closing the gap between education and industry: skills' and competencies' requirements for food service internships in Switzerland. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education. 22(4), 33-42.

Jogaratnam, G. & Buchanan, P. (2004) Balancing the demands of school and work: Stress and employed hospitality students. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 16(4), 237-245.

Lee, C. (2013) What curriculum differences exist between hospitality programs: a case study of selected hospitality programs in the U.S. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems. 6(2), 1-11.

Mohammed, A.A. & Rashid, B. (2016) The moderating influence of internship program on the relationship between undergraduates’ perception and their intention to join tourism and hospitality industry: a theoretical model. International Review of Management and Marketing. 6(2), 317-32.

Nonis, S.A. & Hudson, G.I. (2010) Performance of college students: impact of study time and study habits. Journal of Education for Business, 85(4), 229-238.

Robotham, D. (2009) Combining study and employment: a step too far? Education & Training, 51(4), 322-332.

Sagadin, T.A. (2013) Communicating concepts of hospitality in education: fighting crisis through quality improvement. Paper presented at 2nd International Scientific Conference Tourism in South East Europe 2013, Opatija, Croatia. Retrieved from

Selmanovic, S (2016) Online Simulation Game: Inspiring students to actively learn about International Business. Retrieved from

Sørensen, M (2011) Learning with simulation games. Masters Thesis. Retrieved from 10417/2966/michael_soerensen.pdf?sequence=1

Tesone, D.V. & Ricci, P. (2005) Job competency expectations for hospitality and tourism employees. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism. 4(2), 53-64.

Tesone, D.V. & Ricci, P. (2012). Hospitality expectations of entry-level college graduates: A preference for attitude over aptitude. European Journal of Business and Social Science. 1(6), 140-149.

Vihakara, A. & Blue, R. (2015) Gamification and E-learning in global adult education case master’s degree program business management and entrepreneurship. The Business and Management Review, 6(5), 128-136.

Wardle, K.M. (2012) Work integrated learning for tertiary hospitality education. Paper presented at the ACEN 2012 Conference, Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved from Work-Integrated-Learning-for-Tertiary-Hospitality-Education.pdf

Zaitseva, N.A., Goncharova, I.V. & Androsenko M.E. (2016) Necessity of changes in the system of hospitality industry and tourism training in terms of import substitution. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 6(1), 288-293.