Journal of Mahanakorn Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mahanakorn University of Technology en-US Journal of Mahanakorn Veterinary Medicine 1905-7571 Slaughterhouse Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Meat Rabbits at Central Part of Thailand <p><em>Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi)</em> is protozoa in the order Microsporidia and its seroprevalence increases in many countries including Thailand. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of <em>E. cuniculi</em> infection in meat rabbits at Central part of Thailand. Two hundred and sixty four fattening rabbits were selected to collect serum by systematic random sampling which were entered the slaughterhouse during December 2016 to January 2017. The seroprevalence of <em>E. cuniculi</em> infection detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the study population is 42.4%. Thereafter, the owners of rabbit farm were interviewed on production network and general information. Production network was separated into two groups which was network A (Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi provinces) and network B (Phetchaburi province) which there were not any exchange between farms across the networks except using the same slaughterhouse. Lower percentage of seropositive results was observed in network A (20%) comparing to network B (71.9%). The differences between two networks are management program, age of slaughter rabbits, nutrition management and ventilation in housing which could be the cause of the contrast seroprevalence. The future survey to identify risk factors should be studied for getting the important information for prevention program and standard improvement on meat rabbit production in Thailand.</p> ชัญญานุช อินทชาติ ปาลิน จิวากานนท์ ศรสวรรค์ วรรณศิลป์ อรนันท์ อุดมพัฒนากร อรรถวิทย์ โกวิทวที สิริลักษณ์ จาละ ดุษฎี แก้ววงษ์วาลย์ พิพัฒน์พงษ์ จันทร์แดง ปรีดา เลิศวัชระสารกุล พรชัย สัญฐิติเสรี ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-24 2018-02-24 12 2 35 45 Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthic Infection in Population of Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Khao Sam Muk, Chonburi Province <p>Infections of helminthes and protozoan may represent a public health problem some area in Thailand. The important infectious of helminthes and protozoan between animal and human. This study aims to determine the intestinal helminthic infection of population from long-tailed macaques (<em>Macaca fascicularis</em>) from Khao Sam Muk, Chonburi province during January to April, 2017. All of 63 samples were examined by the formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. The result showed that 84.1 percentage samples were positive. Helminths were found including <em>Trichuris trichiura </em>27 percentage and hookworm 25.4 percentage. The 73 percentage of long-tailed macaques were infected with the protozoa including <em>Entamoeba coli</em> (58.7 percentage), <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> (22.2 percentage), <em>Giardia lamblia</em> (11.1 percentage), <em>Blastocystis hominis</em> (9.5 percentage) and <em>Endolimax nana</em> (6.3 percentage). Additionally, the study found 58.7 percentagemixed infection of helminths and protozoa. This result indicated that long-tailed macaques were important reservoirs of helminth diseases.</p> ภัทธกร บุบผัน รัตน์ติพร โกสุวินทร์ มณิสรา ชาติกุล รุจิรา ต๊ะจันทร์ กัญจน์ธรม โลสันเทียะ สุชาดา ข้ามสี่ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 47 55 The Prevalence of Theileria spp. of Goat in Watthana Nakhon District, Sa Kaeo Province <p>Theileriosis is a disease caused by <em>Theileria</em> spp. that infects both red and white blood cells of livestock animal such as cattle, buffalo, goat, and sheep. Theileria parasites have been reported as very pathogenic, causing a high ration of mortality in small ruminants, which can cause severe economic loss in animal husbandry. Therefore, it is necessary to check the epidemiology of <em>Theileria</em> spp. of livestock animal. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of <em>Theileria</em> spp. of goat in Watthana Nakhon district, Sa Kaeo province. Blood samples of 196 goats were collected from 3 areas of Watthana Nakhon district including Huai Chot and Nong Waeng and Tha Kwian sub-district. The V4 region of 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results demonstrated that the PCR product was approximately 230 bps in length. The prevalence of <em>Theileria</em> spp. infection in goat of Huai Chot, Nong Waeng and Tha Kwian sub-district was 32.70% (34/104), 57.50% (23/40), and 46.15% (24/52),&nbsp; respectively. The overall prevalence of <em>Theileria</em> spp. infection in goat of Watthana Nakhon district was 41.33% (81/196). In addition, the factors of location, and timing of blood collection affected the prevalence of <em>Theileria</em> spp. In summary, PCR technique can be used to determine the prevalence. The goats in Watthana Nakhon district were relatively high infected of <em>Theileria</em> spp. probably due to the farmers not to focus on the prevention and elimination of disease vectors.</p> ไพทูล แก้วหอม วรรณา ฐิตะสาร ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 57 66 Genetic Diversity of Native Chicken in Uttaradit Province for Sustainable of Utilization and Conservation <p>This study was to investigate genetic diversity of native chicken in Uttaradit Province by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. A total of 22 native chicken of 9 amphoe in Uttaradit province represented. The 560 bases of mtDNA (cytochrome b) were sequenced and compared to native chicken reported in GenBank, and the phylogenetic tree for the native chickens were constructed based on the cytochrome b sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Thai native chickens were divided into two lineages. The first lineage was closely related to <em>G. gallus gallus </em>and<em>G. gallus spadiceus</em>. The second lineage was closely related to <em>G. gallus gallus, G. gallus spadiceus</em> and <em>G.&nbsp; gallus murghi</em>.This is the first molecular data report of native chicken in Uttaradit Province. The information generated by this study will greatly aid in the establishment of effective breeding programs and conservation genetics of native chicken in Uttaradit.</p> สิริวดี พรหมน้อย สกุณา พัฒนกุลอนันต์ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 67 77 The Detection of Kidney Injury in Dogs by Biomarker: Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) <p>Acute kidney injury commonly causes the high risk of death in dogs because the clinical investigation by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine has failed to identify early stages of kidney dysfunction and structural injury. By this reason, there is important to use the biomarker for diagnosis of early kidney injury and immediate treatment. The objective of this research was to investigate the application of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) canine biomarker, a protein that is increasing when renal tubular cells damage resulted for the acute kidney injury and kidney diseases in dogs. The studied dogs were classified into three groups according to canine IRIS guidelines for grading AKI. Group 1 was defined as 1-7 years-old dogs without clinical or laboratory signs of AKI. Group 2 was defined as dogs with kidney injuries and normal creatinine values (IRIS AKI, 2013, grade I with serum creatinine ≤1.6 mg/dl). Group 3 was defined as renal failure dogs with elevated serum creatinine (IRIS AKI grade II–V with serum creatinine &gt;1.6 mg/dl). Serum and urine samples were taken for NGAL evaluation (sNGAL and uNGAL, respectively) with Dog NGAL ELISA kit (BIOPORTO<sup>®</sup>, Denmark). The results found that the means of sNGAL and uNGAL in the dogs with kidney injuries and normal creatinine values were higher than normal dogs. It seems that the renal damages in the dogs with kidney injuries and normal creatinine values were severe than normal dogs. In this result, sNGAL could be effective to predict the acute renal injury better than creatinine level. Furthermore, the means of sNGAL and uNGAL were similar in the dogs with kidney injuries and normal creatinine values. Likewise, the level of uNGAL was increased more rapidly than the sNGAL level in dogs with renal failure and elevated serum creatinine compared to normal dogs. This indicated that uNGAL was better than sNGAL for evaluation of acute renal injury. This study showed that NGAL may serve as the marker for prediction of kidney injury, detection of different kidney diseases and evaluation of treatment outcome in dogs.</p> ธนากร วัฒนพรภิรมย์ เฉลิมพล เล็กเจริญสุข ชยกฤต สินธุสิงห์ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 79 89 Longitudinal Study on Antibodies Detection against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Vaccinated Fattening Pigs by Various Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Test Kits <p>This experiment aims to compare the efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine using North America and European genotypes attenuated vaccines including determine the correlation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit tests for antibody detection using LSIVet<sup>TM</sup> Porcine PRRS/EU-Serum (LSI-EU; LSI, France), LSIVet<sup>TM</sup> Porcine PRRS/US-Serum (LSI-US; LSI, France) and IDEXX PRRS X3 Ab Test (IDEXX<sup>®</sup>, USA). The antibody level of North America strain vaccinated group was rather steady during the first 6-weeks-post vaccination then increasing and steady until slaughtering. For European strain vaccinated group, was decrease up to 4 weeks post vaccination then increasing and steady until slaughtering. These data suggest that North American genotype vaccinated group have a tendency better than European genotype vaccinated group in term maintain the maternal immunity after vaccination, onset duration of antibody increasing and maintain high level of immunity until slaughtering. In addition, present study was compared the correlation between 2 groups of commercial ELISA test kits for PRRS antibody detection such as IDEXX that detects both NA and EU genotypes, and LSI’s test kits that were developed to detect specifically either antibodies NA or EU strains of PRRS viruses. The correlation between LSI-EU and LSI-US compared with IDEXX, was showed in Kappa (κ) value as 0.9097, interpreted as almost perfect agreement. And the degree of linear association between both LSIs and IDEXX were use a correlation coefficient as 0.513 (p≤0.01), indicated that both ELISA test kit was moderate correlation. The explanation for these results that both types of LSIVet<sup>TM</sup> ELISA test kit for PRRS antibody detection could be tested as same as IDEXX.</p> ศักดิ์ชัย เรือนเพชร ทรรศนีย์ บุณยทรรศนีย์ ทิพวัลย์ จันทะฟอง ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 91 102 Technique of Hemodialysis in Acute Uremia Dog with Complications <p>An 8 year-old, 20 kg, mixed breed dog presented with anemic condition, respiratory distress condition and severe uremia (BUN = 250 mg/dL, creatinine = 18.4 mg/dL) including anuria for 3 days. Hemodialysis treatments were performed 3 times at Hemodialysis unit, Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (KUVTH). The dialysis machine setting values including blood flow rate was set at 5 ml/kg/min, 5 ml/kg/min and 6 ml/kg/min, respectively. The dialysate flow rate was set at 500 ml/min in every session. The time was set at 90 minutes, 90 minutes and 150 minutes in each session, respectively. The urea reduction ratios were 0.48, 0.45 and 0.52, respectively. At the end of the treatment, the patient’s azotemia level was on stage III of chronic renal disease (BUN = 37 mg/dL, creatinine = 3.17 mg/dL) with normal clinical signs. The time of hospital stay was 14 days. The patient could spend her life almost normally at home and lived 120 days. This case report had described details in the procedure of hemodialysis.</p> คาริน วิชชุกิจ ปิยวรรณ ธนะเพิ่ม เฉลิมพล เล็กเจริญสุข ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 103 113 Congenital Supravalvular and Valvular Pulmonic Stenosis in French Bulldog <p>A 2.5-month-old female French Bulldog presented at Small Animal Hospital Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Mahanakorn University of Technology because jugular pulsation was detected.&nbsp; On physical examination, a systolic murmur 4/6 heard best over the left heart base. Right lateral thoracic radiography showed normal heart size while ventrodorsal view demonstrated the right heart enlargement. Echocardiography revealed the right ventricular wall hypertrophy, pulmonic valve stenosis, and mild tricuspid regurgitation. Electrocardiogram was normal sinus rhythm with deep S wave.&nbsp; From the first visit, the severity of pulmonic stenosis was mild to moderate degree since there was no clinical sign, the veterinarian recommended to monitor every 6 months. The second visit was at the dog was about 1 year of age. The echocardiogram showed the increasing severity of pulmonic stenosis. The dog was further diagnosis by Computer Tomography (CT) scan at Small Animal Teaching Hospital Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, in order to examine the aberrant coronary arteries. The CT scan results did not find aberrant coronaries; however, supravalvular pulmonic stenosis was detected concurrent with valvular pulmonic stenosis. The further treatment with balloon valvuloplasty was suggested.</p> ธนวัน มังคละพฤกษ์ วรุต ชินประหัษฐ์ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 115 124 Microsporidiosis: An Emerging and Opportunistic Disease in Humans and Animals <p>Microsporidiosis is an emerging and opportunistic disease in human and a wide range of animals.&nbsp; The disease is caused by Microsporidia, the obligate intracellular parasite which were reclassified from protozoa to fungi. <em>Enterocytozoon bieneusi</em> and <em>Encephalitozoon intestinalis</em>are the most common species cause disease in immunocompromised individuals; however, they were identified in many animals from various areas including Thailand. This review article provides concept knowledge of the disease in humans and animals, the disease transmission, diagnosis and treatment.</p> จิตรบรรจง ทุมพงษ์ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 12 2 125 136