การพัฒนาโรงเรียนเบาหวานโดยการมีส่วนร่วมของชุมชน Establishing diabetes mellitus school by community participation

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ศุภวรรน ยอดโปร่ง ลัฆวี ปิยะบัณฑิตกุล

Abstract

The purpose of this action research was to develop a diabetess mellitus school in accordance with the problems and demands of diabetes patients in Baan Den Both Poh Ngam, Moo 1, Baan Grang Subdistrict, Muang District, Pitsanuloke, by adopting community participation a concept idea in this study. This research conducted 4 stages of action research and a sample consisted of 63 diabetes patients, 6 patient caretakers, 8 village public health volunteers, 3 village leaders, 2 local leaders and 1 health service provider. A method, interview was employed by adopting depth interview, focus group discussion and observation to study between December of 2016 to June of 2017. Qualitative analysis was used. Content analysis and quantitative research used descriptive statistics for data analysis.


                The findings indicated that there were 5 factors affecting inability to control blood sugar level of diabetes patients, which were:      1) Individuals, diabetes patients had inappropriate health care. For example: eating behavior, exercise, stress management, medication/vaccination and diabetes complications prevention; moreover, they misunderstood about diabetes and treatments. 2) Family, caretakers lacked knowledge and understanding of their parts to help the patients during the treatment. As a consequence, there was less support from the caretakers to the patients to change their behaviours  3) Society/community, Village Health Volunteers, community leaders and local leaders didn’t perceive the role to support health care of the patients  4) Culture, the patients had a way of life under their beliefs and faith in the community, such as having food and desserts during religious or auspicious ceremonies which would treat or relieve an illness and  5) Health care system, previous activities and projects didn’t fulfill the patients’ demands and had not been operated continuously. Therefore, Diabetes Mellitus School has been established with participants’ agreement to cope with diabetes in the community. A researcher and a co-researcher had brainstormed to develop a curriculum and operate the school.


                Diabetes School curriculum is comprised of 6 subjects that cover a knowledge base of overall health care, which are:     1) Introduction to Diabetes and Self Improvement,  2) Less Sweet for Healthier Life,  3) Mental Improvement for Stress-Free Life, 4) Shake of the diseases,  5) Local Wisdom for Health, and  6) Occupation and Happiness. The duration of the course was 12 weeks. The school was opened for diabetes patients who are unable to control blood sugar level, also for people who were interested. The results of the Diabetes Mellitus School showed that there were 25 people, including diabetes patients and people in the community who were interested and the blood sugar level of the patients decreased to 88%; moreover, they tended to improve their health care and behaviour up to 96%. Also, a format in the community to manage and take care of the diabetes patients was created, analysed, planned, operated and every process was evaluated by the researcher and the co-researcher that ideally solved the problems of diabetes patients and conform to socio-cultural context that helped the diabetes patients develop their own health care and behaviours, and decreased blood sugar level successfully.

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