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The objectives of this research are to investigate the process and dynamics of social movement to protect local natural resources; to identify aspects of social capital applied by the community to protect natural resources; and to analyze effects of applying social capital in mobilizing the process of natural resource protection. The research operation was based on the qualitative research approach. Data were collected mainly through in-depth interviews and non-participation observation. Results of the study reveal that the social capital in Klongtalay community is composed of 2 types; the social capital traditionally existing within the community referring to the relationship of community members bonded by the thinking system based on Islamic belief and kinship; and the social capital linking to outside connection in a form of network emerging through help or support from groups or organizations outside the community. Both types of social capital interact each other through exchange of ideas and knowledge, which further develop towards civil practice actions appearing in a form movement to protect natural resources. The movement brings about increasing villagers’ capacity in protecting natural resources leading to upholding the community rights in natural resource management and creating social equality among community members. Important suggestions from this study are as follows; each local community should arrange the knowledge management related to social capital and natural resource protection. Nonetheless, the state roles should emphasize on building trust with local people and the civil society sector through active participation so that development projects undertaken at the local level will be socially equitable and unnecessary conflicts can be avoided.
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