World Englishes in Expanding Circle: Views from University Students in Thailand and China

Main Article Content

Rotubon Weerachairattana Jun Duan Adcharawan Buripakdi

Abstract

Diverse forms of English have emerged in all domains of the society. Due to the change in status of English and the growing acceptance of World Englishes (WE) in ELT, this study aimed to explore how university students in the expanding circle perceived and positioned themselves toward WE. 255 students participated in this study, including 125 Thai university students in Thailand and 130 Chinese university students in China. Data were collected from    a questionnaire to explore their perceptions and a semi-structured interview to elicit their positions. The questionnaire data were analyzed in terms of frequency while the interview data were coded and analyzed based on Buripakdi (2008; 2012). The questionnaire revealed that there were similarities and differences in the perceptions of Thai and Chinese respondents regarding WE. Besides, five positions toward WE emerged from the interview i.e. the Standard English, the Instrumental English, the Glocal English, the World Englishes, and the Situational English. These findings reflected the hegemony of British and American English, the place of native and non-native varieties in the real context of use, the potential of Thai and China English as varieties of WE, and the coexistence of standard Englishes and WE in ELT.

Keywords

Article Details

How to Cite
Weerachairattana, R., Duan, J., & Buripakdi, A. (2019). World Englishes in Expanding Circle: Views from University Students in Thailand and China. Journal of Studies in the English Language, 14(1), 125-181. Retrieved from https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jsel/article/view/167146
Section
Articles

References

Bolton, K. (2018). World Englishes and second language acquisition. World Englishes, 37, 5-18. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12299
Brown, K. (2006). World Englishes: To teach or not to teach?. In K. Bolton, & B. B. Kachru (Eds.), World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics (pp. 422-437). London, UK: Routledge. (Original work published 1995)
Buripakdi, A. (2008). Thai English as discourse of exclusion and resistance: Perspectives of Thai professional writers on the notion of Thai English (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania. . (2012). On professional writing: Thai writers’ views on their English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22(2), 245-264.
Canagarajah, S. A. (2006a). The politics and pedagogy of appropriating discourses. In K. Bolton, & B. B. Kachru (Eds.), World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics (pp. 212-238). London, UK: Routledge. (Original work published 1999)
. (2006b). The place of World Englishes in composition: Pluralization continued. College Composition and Communication, 57(4), 586-619.
Choi, K. (2007). Study on students’ attitude towards World Englishes and non-native English teachers. English Teaching, 62(4), 47-68.
Crystal, D. (2000). Emerging Englishes. English Teaching Professional, 14, 3-6.
Fang, F. (2016). Investigating attitudes towards English accents from an ELF framework. Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 68-80
. (2017). An investigation of attitudes towards English accents – A case study of a university in China. In Z. Xu, D. He, & D. Deterding (Eds.), Researching Chinese English: the State of the Art. Multilingual Education, Vol. 22. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
He, D. (2015). University students’ and teachers’ perceptions of China English and World Englishes: Language attitudes and pedagogic implications. Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 65-76.
. (2017). The use of English in the professional world in China. World Englishes, 571-590. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12284
He, D., & Li, D. C. S. (2009). Language attitudes and linguistic features in the ‘China English’ dabate. World Englishes, 28(1), 70-89.
Jindapitak, N., & Teo, A. (2012). Thai tertiary English majors’ attitudes towards and awareness of World Englishes. Journal of English Studies, 7, 74-116.
Jenkins, J. (2006). Current Perspectives on teaching World Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 157-181.
Kachru, B. B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk, & H. G. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures (pp. 11-30). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kachru, Y. (2006). Monolingual bias in SLA research. In K. Bolton, & B. B. Kachru (Eds.), World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics (pp. 413-416). London, UK: Routledge. (Original work published 1994)
Kalra, R., & Thanavisuth, C. (2018). Do you like my English? Thai students’ attitudes towards five different Asian accents. Arab World English Journal, 9(4), 281-294. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol9no4.21
Kubota, R. (2018). Unpacking research and practice in World Englishes and second language acquisition. World Englishes, 37, 93-105. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12305
Low, E. L., & Ao, R. (2018). The spread of English in ASEAN: Policies and issues. RELC, 49(2), 131-148. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688218782513
Mahboob, A. (2018). Beyond global Englishes: Teaching English as a dynamic language. RELC,49(1), 36-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688218754944
Marlina, R. (2014). The pedagogy of English as an international language (EIL): More reflections and dialogues. In R. Marlina, & R. A. Giri (Eds.), The pedagogy of English as an international language: Perspectives from scholars, teachers, and students (pp. 1-19). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Matsuda, A. (2003). The ownership of English in Japanese secondary schools. World Englishes, 22(4), 483-496.
. (2018). Is teaching English as an international language all about being politically correct?. RELC, 49(1), 24-35. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217753489
Matsuda, A., & Matsuda, P. K. (2018). Teaching English as an international language: A WE-informed paradigm for English language teaching. In E. L. Low, & A. Pakir (Eds.), World Englishes: Rethinking paradigms (pp. 64-77). New York, NY: Routledge.
McKay, S. L. (2003). Toward an appropriate EIL pedagogy: Re-examining common ELT assumptions. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), 1-22.
. (2018). English as an international language: What it is and what it means for pedagogy. RELC, 49(1), 9-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/003368821773881
Pan, L., & Block, D. (2011). English as a global language in China: An investigation into learners’ and teachers’ language beliefs. System, 39, 391-402.
Saengboon, S. (2015). An exploratory study of Thai university students’ understanding of World Englishes. English Language Teaching, 8(11), 131-154.
Sridhar, S. N. (2006). A reality check for SLA theories. In K. Bolton, & B. B. Kachru (Eds.), World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics (pp. 417-421). London, UK: Routledge. (Original work published 1994)
Sridhar, K. K., & Sridhar, S. N. (2006). Bridging the paradigm gap: Second-language acquisition theory and indigenized varieties of English. In K. Bolton, & B. B. Kachru (Eds.), World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics (pp. 398-412). London, UK: Routledge. (Original work published 1992)
Wang, C. (2017). Attitudes towards English diversity of students in the international college and the non- IC programmes at a university in Taiwan. RELC, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217716509
Watkhaolarm, P. (2005). Think in Thai, write in English: Thainess in Thai English literature. World Englishes, 24(2), 145–158.
Xu, Z. (2018). Exploring English as an international language – Curriculum, materials, and pedagogical strategies. RELC, 49(1), 102-118. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217753848