Main Article Content
The objectives of this research were to 1) examine concepts, theories, and Dhamma principles of senior citizen care, 2) investigate senior citizen care policies in Phichit Province Metropolitan, and 3) study the development approaches to senior citizen care policies in Phichit Province Metropolitan.
Methodology was the mixed methods. The quantitative research collect data from 398 samples by simple random sampling using questionnaires with people in in Phichit province. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire with the reliability coefficient value of 0.960. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation and multiple correlation coefficient. Qualitative research Collect data from 20 key informants, purposefully selected from experts with structured in-depth-interview form by face-to-face interviewing. Data were also collected from 10 participants in focus group discussion and were analyzed in descriptive interpretation
The research methodology was the qualitative method. Data were collected from two groups of participants: 1) In-Depth-Interview with 10 key informants and 2) focus group discussion with 20 senior citizens, purposefully selected. Data were analyzed by inductive analysis and descriptive interpretation.
The findings were as follows:
1) Concepts, theories, and Dhamma principles of senior citizen care policies were carried out according to elite and administrative models according to national policies, Acts and plan for senior citizen of, Phichit Province emphasizing Activity and Immunological Theories and Dhamma principles for senior citizen care plans.
2) Senior citizen care policies of Phichit Province; The policies emphasized Phichit Province the healthy , the establishment of medicare center for elders, progressive livelihood support fund, social development offices, public health and medical offices for public health promotion, prevention, medication and rehabilitation.
3) Pattern of senior citizen care policies in Phichit Province;
3.1) Policy formulation by problems identification, problem analyzing, and prioritizing the problems and proposing drafted policy. There were also policies approvals, policies announcements, project meetings, activity planning, supervision system development, policies evaluations, and policy fair implementations. However, the policies were very limited and ineffective, not generalized and not appropriate for present situations. The policies lacked real data from communities. There was no public relations and senior citizen database. The policy was not formulated according to Phichit Province Senior Citizen Declaration and related senior citizen laws.
3.2) In terms of policies implementation, policies and plans were adapted and analyzed to determine strengths, weaknesses, problems and evaluation results. The policies were implemented by interdisciplinary teams. The operations of Social Development Office, district offices, Health Department, Public Health Center, Medical Service Department, and Phichit Province Administration general hospitals mainly focused on long-term care and public involvement. For senior citizens with disabilities, supports were provided according to regulations of the Phichit Province Administration. The Baan Bangkae Adult House 2 and Senior Service Center (Din Daeng) had followed the Four Sangahavatthu, Four Sublime States of Mind, Seven Sappurisadhamma, and Four Foundations for Accomplishment. Nevertheless, senior citizens were not happy. Some organizations and officers considered that senior citizen care was not important as a sideline activity. They neglected their duties, did not really care senior citizens, and lacked voluntary mind. More importantly, significant policies were not applied to clearly define clear additional plans or projects.
3.3) As for the policy evaluation, achievement indicators were set and used to evaluate outputs as percentage of satisfactions of senior citizens who received services during the projects. “IPO model” and Deming Cycle consisting of Plan (P), Do (D), Check (C), and Action (A) were conducted to assess the project upon completion. The Social Development Office, Health Department, and Medical Service Department were the ones that implemented policies. Nonetheless, achievements were low because the evaluations did not link to the activities for senior citizens provided by all responsible organizations and true goals of policies. Furthermore, the outcomes and the policy implementation were not regularly monitored.
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