Main Article Content
Breathing in raised levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations can increase the likelihood of specific health effects. The main source of this kind of pollutant gas is attributed to the traffic-related vehicle emission. This research aims to monitor ambient NO2 concentrations during the winter and summer seasons in 4 targeted areas including the commercial areas, high density residential areas, low density residential areas and representative background sites of Pattaya city, Chon Buri province. NO2 samples were collected by the tube-type passive sampling technique, carried out during November 2017 to April 2018, operated at the weekly exposure time. The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations within the 4 aforesaid areas were revealed to range from 9.80–41.71, 8.36–29.01, 8.06–21.86 and 5.14–27.19 ppbv, respectively. The NO2 concentrations within commercial areas were significantly higher than those derived from the counterpart ones (p<0.05). This is in part due to traffic-impacted conditions affected by emerging hotels, businesses, restaurants and entertainment venues. The levels of ambient NO2 concentrations were not significantly influenced by seasons. In terms of a meteorological parameter, a significantly negative correlation was observed between NO2 concentrations and wind speed (r = –0.498 to –0.625), while a positive one was uncovered between NO2 values and relative humidity (r = 0.422 to 0.600). In brief, spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric NO2 are largely attributable to traffic density parameters rather than the periodic changes of meteorological factors.
 F. Cibella, G. Cuttitta, R. D. Maggiore, S. Ruggieri, S. Panunzi, A. D. Gaetano, S. Bucchieri, G. Drago, M. R. Melis, S. L. Grutta, and G. Viegi, “Effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on lung function in urban environment,” Environmental Research, vol. 138, pp. 8–16, 2015.
 M. Kattan, P.J. Gergen, P. Eggleston, C. M. Visness, and H. E. Mitchell, “Health effects of indoor nitrogen dioxide and passive smoking on urban asthmatic children,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 618–624, 2007.
 Pollution Control Department; PCD. (14 August, 2009). Air quality standards. Pollution Control Department. Bangkok, Thailand [Online]. Available: http://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/reg_std_airsnd01.html.
 World Health Organization (WHO), “WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide,” Denmark, 2005, pp. 16–17.
 US-EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). (2018, December 15). NAAQS Table. Criteria Air Pollutants. North Carolina, The United States [Online]. Available: https://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants/naaqs-table#2.
 S. Choo-In, Sampling and Measurment of Pollutants in Ambient Air. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn university press: 2013, pp. 47–69.
 P. Martin, B. Cabanas, F. Villanueva, P. M. Gallego, I. Colmenar, and S. Salgado, “Ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels monitored in an urban area (Ciudad Real) in central-southern Spain,” Water Air & Soil Pollution, vol. 208, no. 1–4, pp. 305–316, 2009.
 P. D. Hien, M. Hangartner, P. M. Tan, and S. Fabian, “Concentrations of NO2, SO2, and benzene across Hanoi measured by passive diffusion samplers,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 88, pp. 66–73, 2014.
 G. Artun, N. Polat, Z. Yay, O. Uzmez, A. Ari, T. Tuygun, T. Elbir, H. Altug, Y. Dumanoglu, T. Dogeroglu, A. Dawood, M. Odabasi, and E. Gaga, “An integrative approach for determination of air pollution and its health effects in a coal fired power plant area by passive sampling,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 150, pp. 331–345, 2017.
 M. Zak, E. Melaniuk-Wolny, and K. Widziewicz, “The exporsure of pedestrians, drivers and road transport passengers to nitrogen dioxide,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 8, pp. 781–790, 2017.
 W. Geerts, “Top 100 cities destinations 2018,” Euromonitor International, pp.19, 2018.
 S. Siengchin, T. Wareesangad, P. Haesakul, P. Boonyasopon, and J. Suwarat. “Investigation and analysis for Pattaya’s progress in stepping towards,” The Journal of King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 379–391, 2017 (in Thai).
 Foreign Workers Administration office, (2018, October). Statistic of foreign works in Thailand, October 2018. Department of Employment, Ministry of Labour. Bangkok, Thailand [Online]. Available: https://www.doe.go.th/prd/alien/statistic/param/site/152/cat/82/sub/73/pull/sub_category/view/list-labell (in Thai).
 S. Bootdee, P. Chalemrom, and S. Chantara, “Validation and field application of tailor-made nitrogen dioxide passive sampler,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 9, no.3, pp. 519–526, 2012.
 Department of Public Works and Town & Country Planning. (2015, April). Ministerial regulation to enforce the city plan, Pattaya city, Chon Buri province. (vol. 132, no. 26, pp. 1–17.) [Online]. Available: http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2558/A/026/1.PDF (in Thai).
 S. S. Ahmad, P. Biiker, L. Emberson, and R. Shabbir, “Monitoring nitrogen dioxide levels in urban areas in Rawalpindi, Pakistan,” Water Air & Soil Pollution, vol. 220, no. 1, pp. 141–150, 2011.
 S. S. Ahmad and N. Aziz, “Spatial and temporal analysis of ground level ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration across the twin cities of Pakistan,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 185, no. 4, pp. 3133–3147, 2013.
 S. Sillapapiromsuk and R. Janta, “Monitoring of ambient nitrogen dioxide concentrations in Lampang city by passive sampling,” Khon Kaen University Science Journal, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 560–571, 2018 (in Thai).
 D. Alejo, M. C. Morales, J. B. Torre, R. Grau, L. Benes, R. V. Grieken, P. V. Espen, D. Sosa, and V. Nunez, “Seasonal trend of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide over Nortg Santa Clara, Cuba,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 185, no. 7, pp. 60233–6033, 2013.
 S. Caballero, R. Esclapez, N. Galindo, E. Mantilla, and J. Crespo, “Use of a passive sampling network for the determination of urban NO2 spatiotemporal variations,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 63, pp. 148–155, 2012.
 Z. Bozkurt, ö.ö. Üzmez, T. Dögeroglu, G. Artun, and E. O. Gaga, “Atmospheric concentration of SO2, NO2, ozone and VOCs in Duzce, Turkey using passive air sampler: Source, spatial and seasonal variations and health risk estimation,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1146–1156, 2018.
 Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Probability and Statistics, Bangkok: Pithak printing, 2012, pp. 254–259 (in Thai).
 Y. Xie, B., Zhao, L. Zhang, and R. Luo, “Spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations between 31 Chinese cities and their relationships with SO2, NO2, CO, and O3,” Particuology, vol. 20, pp. 141–149, 2015.
 H. K. Elminir, “Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 350, no. 1–3, pp. 225–237, 2005.
 R. Jayamurugan, B. Kumaraval, S. Palanivelraja, and M. P. Chockalingan, “Influence of temperature, relative humidity and seasonal variability on ambient air quality in a coastal urban area,” International Journal of Atmospheric Science, vol. 2013, pp. 1–7, 2013.