Main Article Content
Nowadays Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROUV) become necessary equipment for many underwater tasks. However, there are many underwater dynamic-motion characteristics of ROUV, e.g., motion drifting, dynamics of the ROUV thruster, balancing between ROUV weight and buoyancy force, uncertain force from cable wire and underwater field-of-view limitation, that cause difficulty for an operator to control a ROUV even without the water current. In this research, PI stabilization control system is applied to the ROUV and localization system is developed based on Hector SLAM which is a software package of Robot Operating System (ROS). The PI stabilization controller relies on the horizontal velocity, depth and yaw-angular velocity feedbacks to control the robot motion in the corresponding directions. The ROUV hardware consists of a computer laptop, an Arduino board and a Raspberry Pi board as processor unit, thrusters, motor drive boards, a pressure sensor for depth measurement, a gyroscope and magnetometer of IMU for orientation measurement, Lidar sensor for measuring horizontal distance and determining robot position by using the Scan Matching algorithm. The experiments are performed on the developed underwater robot. The ROUV, consisted of 6 thrusters, has an automatic feedback-control system for 4 degrees of freedom motion, which is a main contribution of this research. The research results show that the localization system of the ROUV is able to precisely maintain real-time position and yaw orientation. The controlled system is able to maintain the ROUV at the 3D stationary target position and to maneuver along the desired path.
 A. Z. Abidin, R. Mardiyanto, and D. Purwanto, “Implementation of PID controller for hold altitude control in underwater remotely operated vehicle,” in Proceedings 2016 International Seminar on Intelligent Technology and Its Applications (ISITIA), Lombok, Indonesia, 2016, pp. 665–670.
 S. Timpitak and P. Prempraneerach, “Remotely operated vehicle with depth control,” presented at the 3rd TSME International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Chiang Rai, Thailand, 2012.
 G. C. Karras and K. J. Kyriakopoulos, “Localization of an underwater vehicle using an IMU and a laser-based vision system,” in Proceedings 2007 Mediterranean Conference on Control Automation, Athens, Greece, 2007, pp. 1–6.
 H.-W. Hsieh, C.-L. Lee, and C.-L. Kuo, “Localization of an underwater robot with inertial sensor fusion models,” in Proceedings 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, Taichung, Taiwan, 2010, pp. 1562–1567.
 H. Kondo and T. Ura, “Navigation of an AUV for investigation of underwater structures,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1551–1559, 2004.
 D. Scaradozzi, L. Gambella, S. M. Zanoli, and G. Conte, “Acoustic mapping and localization of an rov,” in Proceedings 14th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Ancona, Italy, 2006, pp. 1–6.
 C. M. Clark, C. S. Olstad, K. Buhagiar, and T. Gambin, “Archaeology via underwater robots: Mapping and localization within maltese cistern systems,” in Proceedings Robotics and Vision 2008 10th International Conference on Control, Automation, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2008, pp. 662–667.
 J. Snyder, “Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) navigation for observation-class ROVs,” in Proceedings OCEANS 2010 MTS/IEEE SEATTLE, Seattle, WA, USA, 2010, pp. 1–9.
 Z. Eskinja, Z. Fabekovic, and Z. Vukic, “Localization of autonomous underwater vehicles by sonar image processing,” in Proceedings 49th International Symposium ELMAR-2007, Zadar, Croatia, 2007, pp. 103–106.
 C. Cain and A. Leonessa, “Validation of underwater sensor package using feature based slam,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 380–408, 2016.
 F. A. Azis, M. S. M. Aras, M. Z. A. Rashid, M. N. Othman, and S. S. Abdullah, “Problem identification for underwater remotely operated vehicle (rov): A case study,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 554–560, 2012.
 W. M. Bessa, M. S. Dutra, and E. Kreuzer, “Depth control of remotely operated underwater vehicles using an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 670–677, 2008.
 T. I. Fossen and S. I. Sagatun, “Adaptive control of nonlinear underwater robotic systems,” in Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation Proceedings, Sacramento, CA, USA, 1991, pp. 1687–1694.
 S. M. Zanoli and G. Conte, “Remotely operated vehicle depth control,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 453–459, 2003.
 W. M. Bessa, M. S. Dutra, and E. Kreuzer, “Dynamic positioning of underwater robotic vehicles with thruster dynamics compensation,” International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 325–332, 2013.
 S. Kohlbrecher, O. von Stryk, J. Meyer, and U. Klingauf, “A flexible and scalable SLAM system with full 3D motion estimation,” in Proceedings IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics, Kyoto, Japan, 2011, pp. 155–160.
 A. Diosi and L. Kleeman, “Laser scan matching in polar coordinates with application to SLAM,” in Proceedings IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Edmonton, Alta, Canada, 2005, pp. 3317–3322.