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This study aims to investigate the Monozukuri approach for human resource development to support Thailand 4.0 Economic Policy Model in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by using research and development methodology. The sample group used in the research comprised of 400 registered entrepreneurs from SMEs in Thailand. Research was conducted through surveys, in which the results could be summarized as follows: Step 1, the in-depth interview about the Monozukuri approach to human resource development to support Thailand 4.0 for SMEs from the target group 1 revealed that performance in terms of the Japanese work culture consisted of 21 factors: 1) Continuous Improvement (Kaizen); 2) Human Resource Development (Hitozukuri); 3) Skills in Technology and Various Sciences; 4) Quality of products and services; 5) Creative Thinking; 6) Price and cost; 7) Customer satisfaction; 8) Building competitiveness; 9) Delivery and distribution of products; 10) Reduction of waste (Muda); 11) Experience and knowledge; 12) Environment and safety; 13) Work attitude and spirit; 14) Prototype production or processing (prototype); 15) the 2Ss, sort and set in order; 16) Production process chain; 17) Operation cycle time (cycle time & time taken); 18) the 7 Ms; 19) Machine performance; 20) Engineering skills; and 21) Business partners, the community and society. Preparation to support the Industry 4.0 business for SMEs consisted of 6 aspects: 1) Strategy and organization management; 2) Smart factory; 3) Smart operations or manufacturing; 4) Smart products; 5) Data-driven services; and 6) Employees. Step 2, the opinion surveys about the Monozukuri approach to human resource development to support Thailand 4.0 for Small and Medium Enterprises found that the current situation and the needs for the Monozukuri approach in SME human resource development consisted namely of: 1) Regular strengthening of knowledge, skills and attitudes in the field of engineering for employees; 2) Promoting the management of the 7 Ms, namely man, money, materials, methods, marketing, machines and morals; 3) Promoting knowledge and practice in supply chains, such as that of effective delivery and distribution of products; 4) Human resource development (Hitozukuri) for quality in work operations and 5) Planning and time management (cycle time and time taken) in employees for suitability and maximum quality. The success of Thailand SMEs in terms of strategy and management to support Thailand 4.0 consisted mainly of analyzing investments to prepare the company to enter the Thailand 4.0 industry. For smart factories, this consisted namely of “The Use of Information Technology to assist in internal factory affairs”. For operations or intelligent manufacturing, this consisted namely of “Operations using intelligent assistance for increased convenience in the operations of the organization, such as waste and time reduction” and “Supporting the introduction of integrated machine-to-machine systems to reduce costs”. For smart products, this consisted namely of “Building products can assess product life cycle data, such as by using QR Codes”. In terms of data-driven services, this included data-driven services for “Services are data-driven for linking products, production or services and customers”. For employees, this consisted of “Employee skill sets are in accordance with the Thailand 4.0 policy”. Step 3, for focus group seminars, it was found that the evaluation of expert opinions on the Monozukuri approach to human resource development to support Thailand 4.0 were consistent with all items and results from step 1 (in-depth interviews) and step 2 (opinion surveys) for the Monozukuri approach to human resource development to support Thailand 4.0 for SMEs.
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