A Comparison of Social Connectedness and Physical Activity between Good and Poor Sleepers: A Pilot Study in Thai Older Adults

Main Article Content

Chantra Promnoi Lorraine J. Phillips

Abstract

     The role of social connectedness and physical activity in sleep in Thai older adults and self-care strategies to promote sleep are not well understood. This study compared social connectedness and physical activity between older adults with good and poor sleep quality, as well as explored self-care techniques older adults use to promote sleep. A multimethod design was used. Fifty cognitively intact older adults from one elders club in Hat Yai, Songkhla Province participated in a questionnaire-based face-to-face interview about sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A focus group with six participants with the highest and lowest PSQI scores was conducted to identify sleep-promoting strategies. Differences in social connectedness and physical activity between good sleepers (32 persons, PSQI ≤ 5) and poor sleepers (18 persons, PSQI >5) were compared with the Mann-Whitney U Test. Content analysis was used for focus group data. The study showed no statistically significant differences in social connectedness and physical activity between good and poor sleepers, although the means for physical activity trended in the expected direction. The focus group data suggested self-care strategies participants used to promote sleep, including non-mind-body/mind-body activities and relaxation/spiritual techniques. Due to the small sample size, the results regarding the associations of sleep quality with social connectedness and physical activity are inconclusive. Thus, future research with larger samples is needed to evaluate the influence of physical activity and social connectedness on sleep quality. Self-care techniques in older adults with sleep problems should be considered with regard to their individual specific needs.

Keywords

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

1. Ancoli-Israel, S. Sleep and its disorders in aging populations. Sleep Medicine. 2009; 10(1), S7-S11.

2. Li J, Yao YS, Dong Q, et al. Characterization and factors associated with sleep quality among rural elderly in China. Arch Gerontol Geriat. 2013; 56(1): 237-43.

3. Park JH, Yoo MS, Bae SH. Prevalence and predictors of poor sleep quality in Korean older adults. Int J Nurs Pract. 2013; 19(2):116-23.

4. Wu CY, Su TP, Fang CL, et al. Sleep quality among community-dwelling elderly people and its demographic, mental, and physical correlates. J Chin Med Assoc. 2012; 75(2): 75-80.

5. Tubtimtes S, Sukying C, Prueksaritanond S. Sleep problems in out-patient of primary care unit. J Med Assoc Thai. 2009; 92(2): 273-8.

6. Mazzotti DR, Guindalini C, Sosa AL, et al. Prevalence and correlates for sleep complaints in older adults in low and middle-income countries: a 10/66 dementia research group study. Sleep Medicine. 2012; 13(6): 697-702.

7. Cornwell B, Laumann EO, Schumm LP. The social connectedness of older adults: a national profile. Am Sociol Rev. 2008; 73(2): 185-203.

8. Cornwell B, Laumann EO. The health benefits of network growth: new evidence from a national survey of older adults. Social Science & Medicine. 2015; 125: 94-106.

9. Thanakwang K. Social networks and social support influencing health-promoting behaviors among Thai community-dwelling elderly. Thai J Nurs. 2008; 12(4): 243-58.

10. Wang CF, Sun YL, Zang HX. Music therapy improves sleep quality in acute and chronic sleep disorders: a meta-analysis of 10 randomized studies. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012. 2014; 51(1): 51-62.

11. Li F, Fisher KJ, Harmer P, et al. Tai Chi and self‐rated quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004; 52(6): 892-900.

12. Uchida S, Shioda K, Morita Y, et al. Exercise effects on sleep physiology. Front Neurol. 2012; 3: 48.

13. Tsai Y, Wong T KS, Ku Y. Self-care management of sleep disturbances and risk factors for poor sleep among older residents of Taiwanese nursing homes. J Clin Nurs. 2008; 17(9): 1219-26.

14. Sok SR. Sleep patterns and insomnia management in Korean-American older adult immigrants. J Clin Nurs. 2008; 17(1): 135-43.

15. Sandberg JC, Suerken CK, Quandt SA, et al. Self-reported sleep difficulties and self-care strategies among rural older adults. JEBCAM. 2014; 19(1): 36-42.

16. Taboonpong S, Puthsri N, Kong-In W, et al. The effects of Tai Chi on sleep quality, well-being and physical performances among older adults. Thai J Nurs Res. 2008; 12(1): 1-13.

17. Dodd M, Janson S, Facione N, et al. Advancing the science of symptom management. Journal of advanced nursing. 2001; 33(5): 668-76.

18. Krishnakumar A, Narine L, Soonthorndhada A, et al. Family stressors, home demands and responsibilities, coping resources, social connectedness, and Thai older adult health problems: examining gender variations. J Aging Health. 2015; 27(2): 257-83.

19. Visuthipanich V, Sirapo-ngam Y, Malathum P, et al. Physical activity questionnaire development and testing among elderly community-dwelling Thais. Thai J Nurs Res. 2009; 13(4): 249-67.

20. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, et al. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry research. 1989; 28(2): 193-213.

21. Sitasuwan T, Bussaratid S, Ruttanaumpawan P, et al. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. J Med Assoc Thai. 2014; 97(Suppl 3): S57-67.

22. Rigler SK, Studenski S, Wallace D, et al. Co-morbidity adjustment for functional outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. Clin Rehabil. 2002; 16(4): 420-8.

23. Lotrakul M, Sumrithe S, Saipanish R. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the PHQ-9. BMC Psychiatry. 2008; 8: 1-7.

24. Blozik E, Stuck AE, Niemann S, et al. Geriatric pain measure short form: development and initial evaluation. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007; 55(12): 2045-50.

25. Cha E, Kim KH, Erlen JA. Translation of scales in cross-cultural research: issues and techniques. JAN. 2007; 58(4): 386-95.

26. Hsieh H, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005; 15(9): 1277-88.

27. Ailshire JA, Burgard SA. Family relationships and troubled sleep among US adults: examining the influences of contact frequency and relationship quality. Journal of health and social behavior. 2012; 53(2): 248-62.

28. Yao KW, Yu S, Cheng SP, et al. Relationships between personal, depression and social network factors and sleep quality in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Nursing Research. 2008; 16(2): 131-9.

29. Baron KG, Reid K J, Zee PC. Exercise to improve sleep in insomnia: exploration of the bidirectional effects. JCSM. 2013; 9(8): 819-24.

30. Chien MY, Chen HC. Poor sleep quality is independently associated with physical disability in older adults. JCSM. 2014; 11(3): 225.

31. Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health. 2015; 1(1): 40-43.

32. Ohayon MM, Carskadon MA, Guilleminault C, et al. Meta -analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old Age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep. 2004; 27(7): 1255 -73.

33. Nagendra RR, Maruthai N, Kutty BM. Meditation and its regulatory role on sleep. Front Neurol. 2012; 3: 54.

34. Trauer JM, Qian MY, Doyle JS, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia: a systematic review and meta -analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015; 163(3): 191-204.

35. Chennaoui M, Arnal PJ, Sauvet F, et al. Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue? Sleep Med Rev. 2015; 20: 59-72.

36. Stevens R G, Blask DE, Brainard GC, et al. Meeting report: the role of environmental lighting and circadian disruption in cancer and other diseases. Environmental Health Perspectives.2007; 115(9): 1357-62.