A Causal Model of Servant Leadership of Administrators and Teacher Skills in the 21st Century with Work Engagement as Mediator, Affecting Job Performance of Nursing Instructors in Nursing Education Institutions, the Office of the Higher Education Commission.

Main Article Content

Napatip Tungtrijuk Sudarat Sanswang Prompilai Buasuwan Warunee Lupanachokdee


This research aimed to analyze a causal model of job performance of nursing instructors in nursing education institutions, the office of the higher education commission. The research samples were 273 nursing instructors in 15 nursing education institutions, the office of the higher education commission, selected by stratified random sampling technique. The research instrument was a questionnaire with five levels rating scale. The IOC was between .60-1.00 and the reliability was .97. Data were analyzed descriptive statistics and Structural Equation Modeling.

The research findings were as follows: 1) Servant leadership of administrator had not a direct on the job performance of nursing instructors. 2) Teacher skills in the 21st century and work engagement had a direct on the job performance of nursing instructors. 3) The relationship of servant leadership of administrator was not mediated by work engagement with the job performance of nursing instructors. 4) The relationship of teacher skills in the 21st century was mediated by work engagement with the job performance of nursing instructors. 5) A causal model of job performance of nursing instructors is in accordance with the empirical data. (x^2 = 121.26 P-value = .06 df = 98 RMSEA = .03 GFI = .95 AGFI = .92)



Article Details

Research Articles


1. CHE QA. CHE QA Online System [Internet]. Bangkok: 2017 [cited 2017 Aug 1]. Available from:

2. Office of Nation Education Standards and Quality Assessment (Public Organization). External quality assessment the third result (year 2011-2015) [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Aug 1]. Available from: http://aqa.onesqa.or.th

3. Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council. Nursing Education Institutions were provided accreditation from the Nursing and Midwifery Council Committee [Internet]. Bangkok: Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council; 2018 [cited 2018 Mach 13]. Available from: http://www.tnmc.or.th

4. Songloed D, Thongkhamrod R, Jeotee K. The relationship of positive psychological capital and organization commitment on work performance of nursing faculties, Southern of Boromarajonani College of Nursing. JHUSO.UBRU. 2017; 8(2): 27-43. Thai.

5. Phoomphong K. Relationships between perceived self-efficacy, job characteristic, job satisfaction and job performance of employees in Faculty of Agriculture, [master’s thesis]. [Chiang Mai]: Chiang Mai University; 2008. 118 p. Thai.

6. Bohlander G, Snell S, Sherman A. Managing human resources. 12th ed. Tennessee: South-western College Publishing, 2001.

7. Laub JA. Assessing the servant organization development of the servant leadership assessment (SOLA) instrument [dissertation]. [Florida]: Florida Atlantic University; 1999. 131 p.

8. Stone AG, Russell FR, & Patterson K. Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. LODJ. 2004; 25(4): 349-361.

9. Meemoei T, Jongwisan R, Sakdiworapong C. Servant leadership, spirituality in organization and job performance of managers in a private food industry business in Bangkok. J of KMUTNB. 2011; 21(2): 447–55. Thai.

10. Nithananon M. Relationships between servant leadership and job performance of coordinating teachers of the World Morality Revival Project. [master’s thesis]. [Bangkok]: Kasetsart University; 2014. 122 p. Thai.

11. Ruanthai S. The relationship between servant leadership, team working, organizational citizenship behavior and job performance of managers at a private communication organization in Bangkok. [master’s thesis]. [Bangkok]: Kasetsart University; 2008. 118 p. Thai.

12. Hussain T, Ali W. Effect of servant leadership on followers’ job performance. Sci., Tech. and Dev, 2012; 31(4): 359-68.

13. Panich V. How to create a learning for learner in 21st Century. Bangkok: Tathata Publication; 2012. Thai.

14. Ron G, Richards J, Koeller M, et al. Purposeful use of 21st century skills in higher education. JRIT. 2016; 9(3): 19 – 30.

15. Sriwichai P, Pinjai P. Factors influencing performance of incharge nurses in general hospital, Phayao. JNHC. 2017; 35(3): 155-64. Thai.

16. Wisutthakorn P, Jadesadalog V. Development of creative to create innovative work performance results of teaching support staff of Kanchanaburi Rajabhat University. Veridian E-J SU. 2015; 8(1): 1012-31. Thai.

17. Menoy J, Kanjanamaneesathian D. The relationship between emotional quatient and job performance of the revenue officers in Bangkok Area Revenue. Veridian E-J SU. 2011; 4(1): 573-86. Thai.

18. Suresirikul A. Development of key performance indicators for engineers in electronic industry in Northern region industrial estate, Lamphun Province. [master’s minor thesis]. [Chiang Mai]: Chiang Mai University; 2007. 107 p. Thai.

19. Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB. UWES-Utrecht work engagement scale. Netherland: Occupational health psychology unit, Utrecht University; 2004.

20. Anitha J. Antecedents of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. GRG School of Management Studies, Peelamedu, Coimabatore; 2012.

21. Jankingthong K. Structural equation model of the relationship of behavior toward the polices’ performance in Southern Border Provinces of Thailand. JMS. 2012; 33(1), 1-24. Thai.

22. Lepine JA, Rich BL, Crawford ER. Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. AMJ. 2010; 53(3): 617– 635.

23. Jaemtim N. Antecedents of engagement and empowerment Impact on job performance and organization citizenship behavior of nursing instructors of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, the Ministry of Public Health. [dissertation]. [Bangkok]: Kasetsart University; 2014. 201 p. Thai.

24. Jaemtim N, Sanongyard J. Factors influencing job engagement that affect on job performance of nursing instructors of Boromarajonani College of Nursing , The Ministry of Public Health. J of Education Research Faculty of Education, SWU. 2016; 11(1): 51– 61.Thai.

25. Choochom O. An analysis of work engagement construct. UMT Poly J. 2014; 11(2): 75–79. Thai.

26. National Education Association. Preparing 21st century students for a global society: An educator’s guide to the “Four Cs.” [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2017 Aug 22]. Available from: http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/A-Guide-to-Four-Cs.pdf

27. Ministry of Education. Higher Education Standards. B.E. 2561. 2018 July 20.

28. The Civil Service Commission in Higher Education Institution. Academic work standard of Instructor, assistant professor, associate professor and professor B.E. 2558. 2015 June 11.

29. Vanichbuncha K. Analysis structural equation modeling: SEM with AMOS. Bangkok: Samlada; 2014. Thai.

30. Srisa-ard B. Preliminary research. 9 th ed. Bangkok: Suveriyasan; 2013. Thai.

31. Roongruangsri S, Sngounsiritham U. Nursing faculty: Challenging the personal competency. Nurs J. 2015; 42(Supplement): 214-21.Thai.

32. Pokasem B. Nursing Instructors and work happiness. NJMPH. 2015; 25(1): 13-24. Thai.

33. Kumkrua M, Siripanich P. A Comparative on the quality of working life of university lecturers in Bangkok. Narkbhutparitat J. 2012; 4(2):7-16. Thai.

34. Thongcharoen V, Tantanadaecha S., Methakunavudhi P. Factors and indicators of professional standards for nursing faculties. Nurs Sci J Thail. 2010; 28(4): 55-66. Thai.

35. Intuyod N. General psychology. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press; 2013. Thai.

36. Schaufeli WB. Positive occupational health: The challenge for the future [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2017 October 9]. Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/tyoterveyslaitos/wilmar-schaufeli-employeeengagement.

37. Saks AM. Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. J. Manag. Psychol. 2006; 21(7): 600-619.
38. Chuayounan S, Chaijukul Y, Khlai-Aum S, et al. High performance work behavior; causal factors relation within the education criteria for performance excellence. MBA-KKU J. 2015; 1(2): 1-16. Thai.

39. Wong Ratana C. Techniques for using statistics for research. Nonthaburi: Thai Niramitkit Inter Progressive; 2007. Thai.

40. Kaiyawan Y. Principles of research statistics and the use of spss programs. Bangkok: CU PRINT; 2015. Thai.

41. Bakker AB, Demerouti E. Towards a model of work engagement. Career Dev Int. 2008; 13(3): 209–23.