The Factors Predicting Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women with Sexually Transmitted Infections Factors Predicting Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women with Sexually Transmitted Infections

Main Article Content

Hongsavadee Yothatip Nanthana Thananowan Chaweewan Yusamran Nopporn Vongsirimas

Abstract

This Predictive correlational research aimed to determine the predictive power of sexually transmitted disease, gestational age at first antenatal care, age at first sexual intercourse, condom use, husband’s alcohol drinking, and social support on intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The sample consisted of 180 pregnant women with STIs who were treated at the Gynecologic Infectious Diseases and Female Sexually Transmitted Diseases Unit of the University Hospital in Bangkok. Data were collected by using six questionnaires: 1) Demographic Characteristics, 2) Sexual Intercourse, 3) Pregnancy, 4) Substance Use, 5) Medical Outcomes Study: Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and 6) Abuse Assessment Scale (AAS). The content validity of all questionnaires was judged by 3 experts. The reliability of questionnaires 5-6 were tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, yielding values of .97 and .78 respectively. Data analysis were performed by descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent t-test, and logistic regression.This Predictive correlational research aimed to determine the predictive power of sexually transmitted disease, gestational age at first antenatal care, age at first sexual intercourse, condom use, husband’s alcohol drinking, and social support on intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The sample consisted of 180 pregnant women with STIs who were treated at the Gynecologic Infectious Diseases and Female Sexually Transmitted Diseases Unit of the University Hospital in Bangkok. Data were collected by using six questionnaires: 1) Demographic Characteristics, 2) Sexual Intercourse, 3) Pregnancy, 4) Substance Use, 5) Medical Outcomes Study: Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and 6) Abuse Assessment Scale (AAS). The content validity of all questionnaires was judged by 3 experts. The reliability of questionnaires 5-6 were tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, yielding values of .97 and .78 respectively. Data analysis were performed by descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent t-test, and logistic regression. The findings revealed overall prevalence of IPV was 29.4%. Five factors explained 78 percent of variance in IPV (Nagelkerke R2 = .78, p < .05). Gestational age at first antenatal care (OR = 5.20, p < .05), age at first sexual intercourse (OR = 7.68, p < .05), condom use (OR = 3.52, p < .05), husband’s alcohol drinking (OR = 4.58, p < .05), and social support (OR = .85, p < .05) were significant predictors of IPV among pregnant women with STIs. The results of this study are used as a guideline for the screening of risk factors associated with IPV and as a basis for research on violence in pregnant women with STIs. 

Keywords

Article Details

Section
บทความวิจัย

References

Archavanitkul K, Kanjanajitra C, & Im-Em W. (2008). The first sex of the Thai people want or be forced, who is a partner and use a condom or not?. Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University. (in Thai)

Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control Ministry of Public Health. (2014). Prevalence and incidence of HIV infection in Thailand, 2013. Nonthaburi: Epidemiological surveillance system for AIDS, tuberculosis and STDs. Ministry of Public Health. (in Thai)

Burgos-Soto, J., Orne-Gliemann, J., Encrenaz, G., Patassi, A., Woronowski, A., Kariyiare, B., et al. (2014). Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection. Global Health Action, 26(7), 1-14.

Chaiphosri, P., Ninsum, K., Mahathamnuchock, N., Sripilas, S., & Srilamjiak, K. (2016). HIV Prevention Surveillance in Bangkok Area, 2015. Bangkok: Control division of AIDS, Tuberculosis and STIs Department of Health. (in Thai)

Dhakal, L., Berg-Beckhoff, G., & Aro, A. R. (2014). Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: Results from Nepal demographic health survey 2011. International Journal of Women's Health, 6, 75-82.

Diaz-Olavarrieta, C., Wilson, K. S., Garcia, S. G., Revollo, R., Richmond, K., Paz, F., et al. (2009). The co-occurrence of intimate partner violence and syphilis among pregnant women in Bolivia. Journal of Women's Health, 18(12), 2077-2086.

Dude, A. M. (2011). Spousal intimate partner violence is associated with HIV and other STIs among married Rwandan women. AIDS and Behavior, 15(1), 142-152.

Han, A., & Stewart, D. E. (2014). Maternal and fetal outcomes of intimate partner violence associated with pregnancy in the Latin American and Caribbean region. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 124(1), 6-11.

Ibrahim, Z. M., Ahmed, W. S., El-Hamid, S. A., & Hagras, A. M. (2015). Intimate partner violence among Egyptian pregnant women: Incidence risk factors and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology, 42(2), 213-219.

Jackson, C. L., Ciciolla, L., Crnic, K. A., Luecken, L. J., Gonzales, N. A., & Coonrod, D. V. (2015). Intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy related demographic and psychosocial factors and postpartum depressive symptoms among Mexican American women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(4), 659-679.

Makayoto, L. A., Omolo, J., Kamweya, A. M., Harder, V. S., & Mutai, J. (2013). Prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(3), 441-447.

McFarlane, J., Parker, B., Soeken, K., & Bullock, L. (1992). Assessing for abuse during pregnancy: Severity and frequency of injuries and associated entry into prenatal care. Journal of American Medical Association, 267(23), 3176-3178.

Ntaganira, J., Muula, A. S., Masaisa, F., Dusabeyezu, F., Siziya, S., & Rudatsikira, E. (2008). Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda. BioMed Central Women's Health, 8(1), 17-24.

Olagbuji, B., Ezeanochie, M., Ande, A., & Ekaete, E. (2010). Trends and determinants of pregnancy-related domestic violence in a referral center in southern Nigeria. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 108(2), 101-103.

Perales, M. T., Cripe, S. M., Lam, N., Sanchez, S. E., Sanchez, E., & Williams, M. A. (2009). Prevalence, types, and pattern of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Violence Against Women, 15(2), 224-250.

Polit, D.F., & Hungler, B.P. (1995). Nursing research: Principles and methods. (5thed.). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Rungruangsiripan, M., Sitthimongkol, Y., Maneesriwongul, W., Talley, S., & Vorapongsathorn, T. (2011). Mediating role of illness representation among social support, therapeutic alliance, experience of medication side effects and medication adherence in persons with schizophrenia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 25(4), 269-283.

Shamu, S., Abrahams, N., Temmerman, M., Musekiwa, A., & Zarowsky, C. (2011). A systematic review of African studies on intimate partner violence against pregnant women: Prevalence and risk factors. Public Library of Science, 6(3), 1-9.

Shamu, S., Abrahams, N., Zarowsky, C., Shefer, T., & Temmerman, M. (2013). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Zimbabwe: A cross-sectional study of prevalence, predictors and associations with HIV. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 18(6), 696-711.

Shamu, S., Zarowsky, C., Shefer, T., Temmerman, M., & Abrahams, N. (2014). Intimate partner violence after disclosure of HIV test results among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Public Library of Science, 9(10), 1-8.

Sherbourne, C. D., & Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support surveys. Social Science & Medicine, 32(6), 705-714.

Sigalla, G. N., Rasch, V., Gammeltoft, T., Meyrowitsch, D. W., Rogathi, J., Manongi, R., et al. (2017). Social support and intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania. BioMed Central Public Health, 17(1), 240-252.

Taillieu, T. L., & Brownridge, D. A. (2010). Violence against pregnant women: Prevalence, patterns, risk factors, theories, and directions for future research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(1), 14-35.

Thananowan, N. (2004). Intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai pregnant women: The correlation of violence with maternal characteristics, health care practices during pregnancy, and maternal health. Unpublished Doctoral issertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Thananowan, N. (2014). Violence against Women: Analysis and conclusions of the research evidence. Bangkok: V. print (1991) Co., Ltd. (in Thai)

Thananowan, N., & Heidrich, S. M. (2008). Intimate partner violence among pregnant Thai women. Violence Against Women, 14(5), 509-527.

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. (2015). Guidelines for conducting HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics based on routine programm data. Retrieved from https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/SurveillanceRoutineProgramme Data_en.pdf.