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Foot care behaviors play an important role in preventing of diabetic foot complications. Unfortunately, many diabetes people do not have foot care properly. Simple interrupted time-series design was conducted to test efficacy of self-management support [SMS] program on foot care knowledge, foot care behaviors, perceived social facilitation support, and HbA1c among people with type 2 diabetes at low risk of diabetic foot complications. Forty-two participants from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Police General Hospital who met inclusion criteria were recruited into the study by simple random sampling. Four-week SMS program was developed based on individual and family self-management theory (Ryan & Sawin, 2009) and empirical studies. Study outcomes including diabetic foot care knowledge, diabetic foot care behaviors, perceived social facilitation support, and HbA1c were measured before receiving SMS program at Time 1 and Time 2 and after receiving the program at Time 3 and Time 4. Outcomes were gathered by questionnaires and blood test of HbA1c. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, repeated measure MANOVA, and dependent t-test.
Results revealed that there were significant differences over time for all outcomes variables (F(9,394)=8.39, p<.001). But there were no changes on outcome variable mean scores before receiving SMS program at Time 1 and Time 2. Significant increased mean scores of foot care knowledge, foot care behaviors, and perceived social facilitation support from Time 1 before receiving the program to Time 4 after receiving the program was observed. In addition, HbA1c was significantly decreased from 8.1 % at Time 1 before receiving the program to 7.4 % at Time 4 after receiving the program.
Findings suggest that SMS program is beneficial for type 2 diabetic people at low risk of diabetic foot complications. It would result in increasing perceived social facilitation support, sustaining self-management behaviors, improving glycemic control, and properly performing foot care. Therefore, SMS program should be integrated as a part of routine diabetes nursing care for preventing or delaying diabetic foot complications among this population.
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