The Energy Mix and the Impact of China’s Renewable Energy Development in Tibet: The Loss of Human Security

Main Article Content

Suppawit Kaewkhunok

Abstract

China's energy situation has changed dramatically, especially after the 1990s, when the economy was growing fast that led to the increasing consumption of huge amounts of electricity. This situation led to the development of renewable energy in various areas throughout the country in the 2000s, including the Tibet Autonomous Region, which is well-equipped with water resources and has tremendous potential for generating electricity from solar energy. The growth of renewable energy investments in the Tibetan area, both hydropower and solar, has led to an attempt to analyse the role of renewable energy in the overall energy mix and its impact through the energy security and human security frameworks. The study focuses on analysing the variable energy mix after the 21st Century. In this regard, the study concentrates on how much the potential of renewable energy is to increase the energy mix. At the same time, this study explores the effects and benefits of renewable energy development at the local level, based on the case of Tibet Autonomous Region, through qualitative research based on primary and secondary data. The main argument of this article is the expansion of renewable energy development in Tibet which expected to serve the local people cannot fulfil those goals because this project also creates human security problems that have not happened in any case of renewable energy development.

Keywords

Article Details

How to Cite
Kaewkhunok, S. (2019). The Energy Mix and the Impact of China’s Renewable Energy Development in Tibet: The Loss of Human Security. Political Science and Public Administration Journal, 10(1), 231-250. Retrieved from https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/polscicmujournal/article/view/119958
Section
Academic Article

References

Asia News. (2015, January 27). Beijing Sends a New Flood of Han Migrants to Lhasa: Tibetans Risk Disappearing. Retrieved July 3, 2018, from www.asianews.it/news-en/Beijing-sends-a-new-flood-of-Han-migrants-to-Lhasa:-Tibetans-risk-disappearing-33294.html

Barnett, R. (2015). The Tibetans: Struggle to Survive. Retrieved May 6, 2018, from https://info-buddhism.com/the_tibetans_robert_barnett.html

Bianchi, R. (2006). Tourism and the Globalisation of Fear: Analysing the Politics of Risk and (in) Security in Global Travel. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 7(1), 64-74.

Brugger, E. C. (2016). Reflections on the Moral Foundations of a Right to Energy. In L. Guruswamy (Ed.). International Energy and Poverty: The emerging contours (pp. 68-83). Oxon: Routledge.

Caballero-Anthony, M., Koh, S. L., & Jamil, S. (2012). Rethinking Energy Security: A Non-Traditional View of Human Security. In Caballero-Anthony, M., Chang, Y., & Putra, N. A. (Eds.). Rethinking Energy Security: A Non-Traditional View of Human Security (pp. 1-20). London: Springer Science+Business Media.

Cannon, T. (1990). Regions: Spatial Inequality and Regional Policy. In Cannon, T., & Jenkins, A. (Eds.). The Geography of Contemporary China: The Impact of Deng Xiaoping’s Decade (pp. 28-60). New York: Routledge.

Cannon, T., & Jenkins, A. (1990). Introduction: A Basic Guide to Developments from 1949 to 1989. In Cannon, T., & Jenkins, A. (Eds.). The Geography of Contemporary China: The Impact of Deng Xiaoping’s Decade (pp. 1-27). London: Routledge.

Fenby, J. (2008). Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to the Present. New York: Ecco.

Fischer, A. (2011). The Great Transformations of Tibet and Xinjiang: A Comparative Analysis of Rapid Labour Transitions in Times of Rapid Growth in Two Contested Minority Regions of China. Challenging
the Harmonious Society: Tibetans and Uyghurs in Socialist China. Copenhagen. Retrieved July 04, 2018, from https://repub.eur.nl/pub/33024/Metis_174813.pdf

Guizot, A. (2007). Chinese Energy Markets Trading and Risk Management of Commodities and Renewables. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hezri, A. A., & Hofmeister, W. (2012). Towards a Green Economy In Search of Sustainable Energy Policies for the Future. Singapore: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.

Howard, M. (1990). Industry, Energy and Transport: Problems and Policies. In Cannon, T. & Jenkins, A. (Eds.). The Geography of Contemporary China: The impact of Deng Xiaoping’s Decade (pp. 168-202). London: Routledge.

Hsu, I. C. (2000). The Rise of Modern China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

International Energy Agency. (2003). China, People's Republic of: Electricity and Heat for 2000. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from www.iea.org/statistics/statisticssearch/report/?country=CHINA&product=electricityandheat&year=2000

International Energy Agency. (2017). World Energy Outlook 2017. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WEO_2017_Executive_Summary_English_version.pdf

International Energy Agency. (2018). China, People's Republic of: Electricity and Heat for 2015. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from www.iea.org/statistics/statisticssearch/report/?country=CHINA&product=electricityandheat&year=2015

James, P. (2014). Human Security as a Military Security Leftover, or as Part of the Human Condition? In Bacon, P., & Hobson, C. (Eds.). Human Security and Japan’s Triple Disaster (pp. 72-88). London: Routledge.

Jue, D. (2011). Development For Tibetans, But By Whom?. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable, 5(1), 168-175.

Kahrl, F., Williams, J., & Jianhua, D. (2011, July 7). Four Things You Should Know about China's Electricity System. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/four-things-you-should-know-about-chinas-electricity-system

Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S. I., & Jollands, N. (2013). Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good. In Dyer, H., & Trombetta, M. J. (Eds.). International Handbook of Energy Security
(pp. 507-525). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Kernan, M. (2013). The Displacement of Tibetan Nomads, International Law and the Loss of Global Indigenous Culture. Global Policy Journal. Retrieved July 05, 2018, from www.globalpolicyjournal.com/articles/
international-law-and-human-rights/displacement-tibetan-nomads-international-law-and-loss-g

Leung, G. C., Li, R., & Low, M. (2011). Transitions in China’s Oil Economy, 1990-2010. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 52(4), 483-500.

Li, H., Ma, W., Lian, Y., Wang, X., & Liang, Z. (2011). Global Solar Radiation Estimation with Sunshine Duration in Tibet, China. Renewable Energy, 36(11), 3141-3145.

Liangyu. (2018, January 24). Tibet Reports Double-digit Growth in 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2018, from www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-01/24/c_136921250.htm

Luft, G., Korin, A., & Gupta, E. (2011). Energy Security and Climate Change: A tenuous link. In Sovacool, B. K. (Ed.). The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security (pp. 43-55). Oxon: Routledge.

Mathews, J. A., & Tan, H. (2015). China’s Renewable Energy Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Middlehurst, C. (2017, November 16). China and India Leading Global Energy Transition, Says IEA. Retrieved July 08, 2018, from www.chinadialogue.net/blog/10223-China-and-India-leading-global-energy-transition-says-IEA-/en

Milstein, D., & Cherp, A. (2007). Energy Security and the Environment in Eastern Europe: The Case Study of Ukraine. In Stec, S., & Baraj, B. (Eds.). Energy and Environmental Challenges to Security (pp. 237-250). Dordrecht: Springer.

Mitter, R. (2008). Modern China A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Naughton, B. (2007). The Chinese Economy Transitions and Growth. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Nie, F., Bi, J., & Zhang, X. (2010). Study on China’s Food Security Status. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 1, 301-310.

Palace, W. (2005). The British Empire and Tibet, 1900-1922. Oxon: RoutledgeCurzon.

Pengying. (2018, January 25). Tibet Receives 25 mln Tourists in 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2018, from www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-01/25/c_136924583.htm

Rivers, M. (2016, December 30). Tibet: Tensions on the Roof of the World. Retrieved July 3, 2018, from edition.cnn.com/2016/12/29/asia/china-tibet/index.html

S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. (2014, October). Energy Security in the 21st Century: A Human Security Perspective. Retrieved July 02, 2018, from www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/NL141031_
NTS_Bulletin_Oct2014.pdf

Schaik, S. V. (2011). Tibet a History. London: Yale University Press.

Shan, Y., Zheng, H., Guan, D., Li, C., Mi, Z., Meng, J., & et al. (2017). Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Tibet and Its Cities in 2014. Earth’s Future, 5(8), 854-864.

Smil, V. (2010). Energy Myths and Realities: Bringing Science to the Energy Policy Debate. Washington: The AEI Press.

Sovacool, B. K., & Drupady, I. M. (2012). Energy Access, Poverty, and Development: The Governance of Small-Scale Renewable Energy in Developing Asia. Surrey: shgate Publishing Limited.

Stirling, A. (2014, March). Transforming Power: Social Science and the Politics of Energy Choices. Energy Research & Social Science, 1, 83-95.

The Economist. (2018, March 5). Regional China: Energy Structure. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from https://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=216481205&Country=China&topic=Economy

The Telegraph. (2013, June 27). Seven Years in Tibet: 2 Million 'Displaced' by Chinese Relocation Policy. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/tibet/10146867/Seven-years-in-Tibet-2-million-displaced-by-Chinese-relocation-policy.html

Tibet Nature Environmental Conservation Network. (2014a). Chinese Agrarian Change and Agriculture in Today’s Tibet. Retrieved July 04, 2018, from www.tibetnature.net/en/chinese-agrarian-change-agriculture-todays-tibet/

Tibet Nature Environmental Conservation Network. (2014b). The Impact of China’s Search for Wealth on Tibet’s Environment and Its People. Retrieved July 04, 2018, from www.tibetnature.net/en/impact-chinas-search-wealth-tibets-environment-people/

Tsoutsos, T., Frantzeskaki, N., & Gekas, V. (2005). Environmental Impacts from the Solar Energy Technologies. Energy Policy, 33(3), 289–296.

Tyler, M.-E., & Herremans, I. M. (2018). Sustainable Energy Mix in Fragile Environments: A Transdisciplinary Framework for Action. In Tyler, M.-E. (Ed.). Sustainable Energy Mix in Fragile Environments Frameworks
and Perspectives (pp. 183-194). Cham: Springer International Publishing AG.

Walker, B. (2016, March 21). China Plans More Dams and Mega Infrastructure in Tibet. Retrieved July 02, 2018, from www.thethirdpole.net/en/2016/03/21/china-plans-more-hydro-projects-and-mega-infrastructure-in-tibet/

Wan, W., & Xu, Y. (2014, August 16). China Promotes Mixed Marriages in Tibet as Way to Achieve ‘Unity’. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/china-promotes-mixed-marriages-in-tibet-as-way-to-achieve-unity/2014/08/16/94409ca6-238e-11e4-86ca-6f03cbd15c1a_story.html?utm_term=.c2adebe6bb81

Wang, L., Li, H., & Cheng, S. (2012). A Study of the Ecological Effects of Solar Energy Development in Tibet. Mountain Research and Development, 32(1), 83-91.

Wang, Q., & Qiu, H.-N. (2009). Situation and Outlook of Solar Energy Utilization in Tibet, China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(8), 2181-2186.

Wang, W., Shi, L., Yin, A., Mao, Z., Maitland E., Nicholas S., & Liu, X. (2015). Primary care quality between Traditional Tibetan Medicine and Western Medicine Hospitals: a pilot assessment in Tibet. International Journal Equity Health, 14(45), 1-6.

Winkler, D. (1996). Forests, Forest Economy and Deforestation in the Tibetan Prefectures of West Sichuan. The Commonwealth Forestry Review, 75(4), 296-301.

Wong, E. (2010, July 24). China’s Money and Migrants Pour into Tibet. Retrieved July 03, 2018, from www.nytimes.com/2010/07/25/world/asia/25tibet.html

Yang, S., & Chen, B. (2014). Environmental Impact of Manwan Hydropower Plant on River Ecosystem Service. Energy Procedia, 61, 2721-2724.

Yuan, X., Zuo, J., & Ma, C. (2011). Social Acceptance of Solar Energy Technologies in China-End users’ perspective. Energy Policy, 39(3), 1031-1036.

Yue, G. (2010). Fragments of Shangri-La “Eco-Tibet” and Its Global Circuits. In Roos, B., & Hunt, A. (Eds.). Postcolonial Green: Environmental Politics and World Narratives (pp. 49-63). Virginia: University of Virginia Press.

Zhang, B., Chen, X.-D., Li, B.-L., & Yao, Y.-H. (2002). Biodiversity and conservation in the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 12(2), 135-143.

Zhang, J., Xu, L., & Cai, Y. (2017). Water-Carbon Nexus of Hydropower: The Case of a Large Hydropower Plant in Tibet, China. Ecological Indicators, 92, 107-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.06.019