Development and Acceptance of the Low Sodium Food Recipes Based on the Thai Traditional Medicine Belief

Main Article Content

Narisa Rueangsri* Uraiporn Booranasuksakul* Alongkote Singhato* Somjet Khongkhon**

Abstract

Background: Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) theory states that humans were created by combination of various elements (Pitta-heat, Wata-motion, and Semha-fluidity) which form their physical and physiological beings. Based on TTM theorists’ belief humans can also be defined by their main element called ‘TathuJaoRuen’ which is determined according to their personal characteristics. Previous studies found that regular consumption of food based on their main elements can lower risk of illness among people. Unfortunately, food available in Thai communities is commonly high in sodium which can lead to many chronic diseases in the later part of life span.


Objectives: This study aimed to develop the low sodium food recipes based on the Thai people main elements and determine the satisfactions (taste, flavor, color, texture, and overall satisfaction) of the participants.


Materials and Methods: Nine menus for the 3 main elements (3 menus for each element) were developed for conducting the sensory evaluation by 90 participants (30 for each element) who had been screened and identified for main elements towards the developed menus.


Results: Results revealed that almost of all aspects in each element, there were no difference on satisfaction scores, except for Semha that there were significant difference on flavor and color of food based on Semha element. In addition, the average amount of sodium in the low sodium recipe was significant lower than original recipe. Moreover, results indicated the overall satisfaction scores of all menus were classified as acceptable to participants


Conclusion: The developed low sodium food recipes according to the Thai Traditional Medicine belief were satisfactory and acceptable to participants based on their main elements.

Keywords

Article Details

Section
นิพนธ์ต้นฉบับ (Original article)

References

1. Aryal KK, Mehata S, Neupane S, Vaidya A, Dhimal M, Dhakal P, et al. The burden and
determinants of non communicable diseases risk factors in Nepal: Findings from a
Nationwide STEPS Survey. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2018 July 3];10:e0134834.
Available form: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.
0134834&type=printable
2. Ebrahim S, Pearce N, Smeeth L, Casas JP, Jaffar S, Piot P. Tackling non-communicable
diseases in low- and middle-income countries: is the evidence from high-income countries
all we need?. PLoS Medicine [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2018 July 3];10:e1001377. Available
form: https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001377
&type=printable
3. Hunter DJ, Reddy SK. Noncommunicable Diseases. N Engl J Med 2013;369:1336-43.
4. Yiengprungsawan V, Khamman S, Seubsman SA, Lim LL, Sleigh AC. Social capital and
health in a national cohort of 82,482 open university adults in Thailand. J Health Psychol
2011;16: 632–42.
5. Sharma J. Chronic disease management in the South-East Asia Region: a need to do more.
WHO South East Asia J Public Health 2013;2:79-82.
6. Mozaffarian D, Fahimi S, Singh GM, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Engell RE, et al. Global sodium
consumption and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2014;371:624-34.
7. Farquhar WB, Edwards DG, Jurkovitz CT, Weintraub WS. Dietary sodium and health: more
than just blood pressure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;65: 1042–50.
8. Peters SAE, Dunford E, Ware LJ, Harris T, Walker A, Wicks M, et al. The sodium content of
processed foods in South Africa during the introduction of mandatory sodium limits.
Nutrients [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 July 3];9:404. Available form:
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/4/404/pdf
9. Zganiacz F, Wills RBH, Mukhopadhyay SP, Arcot J, Greenfield H. Changes in the sodium
content of Australian processed foods between 1980 and 2013 using analytical data.
Nutrients [Internet] 2017 [cited 2018 July 3];9:E501. Available form:
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/5/501/pdf
10. Radzeviciene L, Ostrauskas R. Adding salt to meals as a risk factor of type 2 diabetes
mellitus: a case–control study. Nutrients [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 July 3];9:E67.
Available form: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/1/67/pdf
11. Buranakitjaroen P, Phoojaroenchanachai M, The prevalence of high sodium intake among
hypertensive patients at hypertension clinic, Siriraj Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 2013;96
(Suppl2):1-8.
12. He FJ, Campbell NRC, MacGregor GA. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and
cardiovascular disease. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2012;32:293-300.
13. Disayavanish C, Disayavanish P. Introduction of the treatment method of Thai traditional
medicine: its validity and future perspectives. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;52:334-37.
14. Chaudhury RR, Rafei UM. Traditional medicine in Asia. New Delhi: WHO; 2001.
15. Subhose V, Srinivas, Narayana A. Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in Ayurveda.
Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad 2005;35:83–92.
16. Makram S, Phanthabuasri K, Tudso S, Booranasuksakul U, Rueangsri N, Singhato A.
Practice of eating food according to tathujaoruen belief and its relationship on health of
people in Bangkok. In : Proceedings of a Kaleidoscope of Traditional and Complementary
Medicines International Conference on : fostering traditional and complementary
medicine trough Research; 2016 Nov 2-3; Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand
2016. P.101-9.
17. Ni Mhurchu C, Capelin C, Dunford EK, Webster JL, Neal BC, Jebb SA. Sodium content of
processed foods in the United Kingdom: analysis of 44,000 foods purchased by 21,000
households. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;93:594-600.
18. Ahuja JKC, Wasswa-Kintu S, Haytowitz DB, Daniel M, Thomas R, Showell B, et al. Sodium
content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States.
Prev Med Rep 2015;2:962-7.
19. Mahajaroensiri S, Vannabhum M, Thamsermsang O, Iampornchai S, Akarasereenont P,
Laohapand T. The development of evaluation form for present body elements (Present
Dhat Chao Ruean) diagnosis in Thai Traditional Medicine. Siriraj Med Bull 2017;10:65-73.
20. Singh-Ackbarali D, Maharaj R. Sensory evaluation as a tool in determining acceptability of
innovative products developed by undergraduate students in food science and
technology at the university of Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching
2014;3:10-27.
21. Nepote V, Mestrallet MG, Olmedo RH, Ryan LC, Conci S, Grosso NR. Chemical
composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and
algarrobo pod syrups. Grasas Aceites 2008;59:174-81.
22. Malinauskas BM, Aeby VG, Overton RF, Carpenter-Aeby C, Barber- Heidal K. A survey of
energy drink consumption patterns among college students. Nutr J [Internet]. 2007 [cited
2018 July 3];6:35. Available form:
https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1475-2891-6-35
23. Grosso NR, Resurreccion AVA. Predicting consumer acceptance ratings of cracker-coated
and roasted peanuts from descriptive analysis and hexanal measurements. Journal of
Food Science 2002;67:1530-7.
24. Cooper EL, Hirabayashi K. Origin of innate immune responses: revelation of food and
medicinal applications. J Tradit Complement Med 2013;3:204-12.
25. Mahjoura M, Khoushabib A, Novic MMG, Feyzabadi Z. Food strategies of renal atrophy
based on Avicenna and conventional medicine. J Tradit Complement Med 2017;7:375–9.
26. Lee KH, Morris-Natschke SL, Yang X, Huang R, Zhou T, Wu SF, et al. Recent progress of
research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional
Chinese medicine. J Tradit Complement Med 2012;2:84-95.
27. Nishimura M, Ohkawara T, Kagami-Katsuyama H, Sato H, Nishihira J. Improvement of
blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipid profile by the Intake of powdered
asparagus bottom-stems and cladophylls. J Tradit Complement Med 2013;3:250-5.
28. Penz ED, Joffres MR, Campbell NRC. Reducing dietary sodium and decreases in
cardiovascular disease in Canada. Can J Cardiol 2008;24:497–501.
29. Lala MA, Nazar CMJ, Mauton BM, Lala H. Effects of dietary salt on blood pressure.
Endocrinol Metab Synd [Internet] 2015[cited 2018 July 3];4(2). Available form:
https://www.longdom.org/open-access/effects-of-dietary-salt-on-blood-pressure-2161-1017- 1000175.pdf
30. Campagnoli T, Gonzalez L, Santa Cruz F. Salt intake and blood pressure in the university
of Asuncion- Paraguay youths: a preliminary study. J Bras Nefrol 2012;34:361-8.
31. Hsieh MF, Wu IW, Lee CC, Wang SY, Wu MS. Higher serum potassium level associated
with late stage chronic kidney disease. Chang Gung Med J 2011;34:418-25.
32. Nagata T, Sobajima H, Ohashi N, Hirakawa A, Katsuno T, Yasuda Y, et al. Association
between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and estimated glomerular
filtration rate (eGFR) decline or death in patients with diabetes mellitus and eGFR more
than 30 ml/min/1.73m2. PLoS ONE [ Internet] 2016 [cited 2018 July 3];11:e0152306.
Available form: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/ file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.
0152306&type=printable
33. Neta ERD, Johanningsmeier SD, Drake MA, McFeeters RF. Effects of pH adjustment and
sodium Ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids. Journal of Food Science 2009;27:
165-9.
34. Liem DG, Miremadi F, Keast RS. Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor.
Nutrients 2011;3:694-711.
35. Moreau L, Bindzus W, Hill S. Influence of sodium chloride on color development of
cereal model systems through changes in glass transition temperature and water
retention. Cereal Chemistry 2009;86:232–8.
36. deAlmeida MA, Villanueva NDM, daSilva-Pinto JS, Saldaña E, Contreras-Castillo CJ.
Sensory and physicochemical characteristics of low sodium salami. Sci Agric 2016;73:
347-55.
37. Jinap S, Hajeb P, Karim R, Norliana S, Yibadatihan S, Abdul-Kadir R. Reduction of sodium
content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate. Food Nutr Res [Internet]. 2016
[cited 2018 July 3];60:30463. Available form:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926097/