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The aim of this research was to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate antibacterial activity of essential oils from three turmeric types grown in Thailand. Turmeric essential oils from rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria, C. longa and C. aeruginosa were obtained by steam distillation. Agar well diffusion method, Broth dilution method and Agar dilution method were used to test antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed by Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) technique. Agar well diffusion test showed that the growth of seven bacteria was inhibited by at least 1 mg/ml of three types turmeric essential oils. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test showed that C. zedoaria essential oil provided higher activity against P. aeruginosa, MRSA and S. epidermidis than C. longa and C. aeruginosa with MIC value of 62.50 µg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils obtained from three types of turmeric samples were not different. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 25, 16 and 14 compounds found in the essential oils obtained from C. zedoaria, C. longa and C. aeruginosa, respectively. b-Turmerone (14.32 %), ar-turmerone (35.41 %) and camphor (9.04 %) were the major components found in the essential oils distillated from C. zedoaria, C. longa and C. aeruginosa, respectively. Therefore, the turmeric essential oils mainly contained a large number of terpenes and significantly exhibited antibacterial activity.
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