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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important complication during pregnancy. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recommended screening for pre-existing or overt DM and gestational diabetes (GDM) by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the first antenatal visit.
Objective: To study the incidence of DM in pregnancy by the new screening program, and its effects on perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who entered for antenatal visits at Ramathibodi Hospital.
Methods: The descriptive study analyzed results of screening DM by HbA1c and FPG among 421 pregnant women who came for antenatal visits during January 4, 2016, to March 31, 2016. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the association between factors with significance level at P < 0.05.
Results: Among the 421 participants, 4 participants (0.95%) were diagnosed with pre-existing DM and 57 participants (13.54%) were diagnosed with GDM at first antenatal visit. In second screening at 24 - 28 weeks of gestational age another 62 participants (21.99%) among 282 participants were diagnosed GDM. Totally incidence of GDM in this study was 35.53%. Abortion rate (18.03%) was significantly higher among pregnant women with DM compared to normal women (2.01%). There was no significant association between DM in pregnancy and other outcomes of pregnancy.
Conclusions: This study showed that the incidence of pre-existing DM in pregnant women screened by HbA1c at the first antenatal visit was very low. DM in pregnancy was significantly associated with abortion, but not with other outcomes of pregnancy.
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