References Format

References

Our journal require authors to use the AMA citation format.  The AMA Styles specifies the writing and citation styles for use in the journals published by the American Medical Association.

To create in-text citations in the AMA style, you just need to include a number in superscript where the source is relevant. Often, a citation is shown with a quote or at the end of the sentence where the source has contributed. The numbers used should be in chronological order from the beginning of the paper to the end.

General rules
   Items are listed numerically in the order they are cited in the text.
   Include up to 6 authors (If more than six, provide the names of the first three authors and then add “et al”).
   If there is no author, start with the title.
   Periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers) should have abbreviated titles.


Example

Journal Article
   Spencer J. Physician, heal thyself - but not on your own, please. Med Educ. 2005;39(6):548-549.
   Serlachius A, Northam E, Frydenberg E, Cameron, F. Adapting a generic coping skills programme for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study. J Health Psychol. 2012;17(3):313-323.
   Fukushima H, Cureoglu S, Schachern PA, et al. Cochlear changes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133(1):100-106.
   Markowitz JT, Laffel LM. Transitions in care: support group for young adults with type1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012;29(4):522-525. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03537.x.

Abstract
   Fliesler SJ, Richards MJ, Peachey NS, Buchan B, Vaughan DK, Organisciak DT. Potentiation of retinal light damage in an animal model of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome [ARVO abstract 3373]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42(suppl):S67.

Letter
   Shenoy BV. Peer review [letter]. JAMA. 1990;264(24):3142.

Entire Book
   World Health Organization. Injury: A Leading Cause of the Global Burden of Disease, 2000. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
   Riegelman RK, Kirkwood B. Public health 101: Healthy people--healthy populations. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2015.

Book Chapter
   Bliss CM, Wolfe M. Chapter 34: Common clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal disease. In: Andreoli TE, Cecil RL, eds. Andreoli and Carpenter's Cecil Essentials of Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2010:382-400.

Presentation or Lecture
   Gordon S. Demystifying citing information in your written work. Presented as part of Pharmacy 127; February 13, 2013; Waterloo, ON.

Unpublished Material
   Carrau KL, Khidr A, Crawley JA, Hillson EM, Davis JK, Pashos CL. The impact of laryngopharyngeal reflux on patient-reported quality of life. Laryngoscope. In press.

Electronic Material or Website
   Marreiros HF, Loff C, Calado E. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida. J Spinal Cord Med. 2012; 35(1):9-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22330186. Accessed March 28, 2012.
   Lunney JR, Foley KM, Smith TJ, Gelband H, eds. Describing Death in America: What We Need to Know. Washington, DC: National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine; 2003. https://www.nap.edu/read/10619/chapter/1. Accessed December 6, 2005.
   Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Reborts K, Walter P. Molecular Biology of the Cell [CD-ROM]. 4th ed. New York, NY: Garland Science; 2002.
   Outbreak notice: Cholera in Haiti. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/noties/outbreak-notice/haiti-cholera.htm. Published October 22, 2010. Updated January 9, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2012.
   Pollack A. FAD approves new cystic fibrosis drug. New York Time. January 31, 2012. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/01/business/fda-approves-cystic-fibrosis-drug.html?ref=health. Accessed February 1, 2012.
   Pharmacist promotion video [video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Yv3bOx-eWK. Published July 15, 2014. Accessed March 3, 2016.