Effect of vacuum frying conditions on physico-chemical properties of banana chips
The feasibility of vacuum frying technology to produce high quality banana chips with lower oil absorption and better flavor and color was investigated. The effects of three frying temperatures (120, 130, and 140C) and three vacuum pressures (21.3, 31.3, and 41.3 kPa) were studied. The quality of vacuum fried chips was subsequently compared with that of chips fried under atmospheric conditions (101.3 kPa) at 170°C. The rate of moisture loss significantly increased (p < 0.05) with the higher temperature and lower vacuum pressure applied in the frying process. In addition, moisture loss was linearly proportionate to the amount of oil content (R2 = 0.97). Frying chips at 140C and 21.3 kPa resulted in the most volume shrinkage. No significant (p > 0.05) difference in color (L* = 58.8, a* = 5.1, b* = 23.9) was found in any of the chips fried under each vacuum condition. Banana chips fried under vacuum pressure conclusively contained (p < 0.05) less oil, were lighter in color, had higher volume shrinkage, less crispness, and a harder texture than atmospherically fried chips.
Aguilera, J.M., Cadoche, L., Carlos, L., & Gutierrez, G. (2001). Microstructural changes of potato cells and starch granules heated in oil. Food Research International, 34, 939-47.
Baixauli, R., Sanz, T., Salvador, A., & Fiszman, S.M. (2003). Effect of the addition of dextrin or dried egg on the rheological and textural properties of batters for fried foods. Food Hydrocolloid, 17, 305-310.
Baumann, B., & Escher, F. (1995). Mass and heat transfer during deep-fat frying of potato slices, rate of drying and oil uptake. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28, 395-403.
Bouchon, P., Aguilera, J.M., & Pyle, D.L. (2003). Structure oil-absorption relationships during deep fat frying. Journal of Food Science, 68(9), 2711-2716.
Bourne, M.C., Moyer, J.C., & Hand, D.B. (1966). Measurement of food texture by a universal testing machine. Food Technology, 20, 170-174.
Garayo, J., & Moreira, R. (2002). Vacuum frying of potato chips. Journal of Food Engineering, 55(2), 181-191.
Guillaumin, R. (1988). Kinetics of fat penetration in food. In Frying of food. pp. 82-90.
Kawas, M.L., & Moreira, R.G. (2001). Characterization of product quality attributes of tortilla chips during the frying process. Journal of Food Engineering, 47, 97-107.
Krokida, M.K., Oreopoulou, V., & Maroulis, Z.B. (2000a). Effect of frying conditions on shrinkage and porosity of fried potatoes. Journal of Food Engineering, 43, 147-154.
Krokida, M.K., Oreopoulou, V., & Maroulis, Z.B. (2000b). Water loss and oil uptake as a function of frying time. Journal of Food Engineering, 44, 39-46.
Mallikarjunan, P., Chinnan, M.S., & Balasubramaniam, V.M. (1995). Mass transfer in edible film coated chicken nuggests: influence of frying temperature and pressure. In Conference of Food Engineering, Purdue University, USA.
Mellema, M. (2003). Mechanism and reduction of fat uptake in deep-fat fried foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 14, 364-373.
Moreira, R.G., Sun, X., & Chen, Y. (1995). The mechanism of oil absorption in tortilla chips. In Conference of Food Engineering, Purdue University, USA.
Moreira, R.G., Sun, X., & Chen, Y. (1997). Factors affecting oil uptake in tortilla chips in deep-fat frying. Journal of Food Engineering, 31, 485-498.
Moreira, R.G., Castell-Perez, E.M., & Barrufet, M.A. (1999). Deep-fat frying: Fundamentals and Applications. Maryland: Aspen Publishers, Inc. 350 p.
Pinthus, E.J., Weinberg, P., & Saguy, I.S. (1993). Criterion for oil uptake during deep fat frying. Journal of Food Science, 58(1), 204-205.
Pinthus, E.J., & Saguy, I.S. (1994). Initial interfacial tension and oil uptake by deep fat fried foods. Journal of Food Science, 59, 804-807.
Pinthus, E.J., Weinberg, P., & Saguy, I.S. (1995a). Oil uptake in deep fat frying as affected by porosity. Journal of Food Science, 66(2), 195-210.
Pinthus, E.J., Weinberg, P., & Saguy, I.S. (1995b). Deep-fat fried potato product oil uptake as affected by crust physical properties. Journal of Food Science, 60(4), 770-772.
Pinthus, E.J., Singh, R.P., Rubnov, M.,& Saguy, I.S. (1997). Effective water diffusivity in deep-fat fried restructured potato product. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 32, 235-240.
Richardson, T., & Hyslop, D.B. (1985). Enzymes. In Food chemistry (Fennema, O.R.), 2nd , pp. 445-447. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
Roa, V.N.M, & Delaney, A.M. (1995). An engineering perspective on deep-fat frying of breaded chicken pieces. Food Technology, 49(4), 138-141.
Saguy, I.S., & Pinthus, E.J. (1995). Oil uptake during deep-fat frying: factors and mechanism. Food Technology, 142-145.
Salvador, A., Sanz, T., & Fiszman, S. (2002). Effect of corn flour, salt, and leavening on the texture of fried, battered squid rings. Journal of Food Science, 67(2), 730-733.
Segnini, S., Dejmek, P., & Oste, R. (1999). Reproducible texture analysis of potato chips. Journal of Food Science, 64(2), 309-312.
Shyu, S.L., & Hwang, L.S. (2001). Effects of processing conditions on the quality of vacuum fried apple chips. Food Research International, 34(2/3), 133-142.
Sothornvit, R. (2011). Edible coating and post-frying centrifuge step effect on quality of vacuum fried banana chips. Journal of Food Engineering, 107(3-4), 319-325.
Toledo, R. T. (1991). Fundamentals of food process engineering. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing Co., pp. 486-574.
Tseng, Y.C., Moreira, R.G., & Sun, X. (1994). Physical and chemical properties of oil degradation related to food quality. In Deep fat frying. Presented at 1994 International Winter Meeting of ASAE, Atlanta, GA. December 13-16, (paper No. 94- 6524).
Ufheil, G., & Escher, F. (1996). Dynamics of oil uptake during deep-fat frying of potato slices. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 29, 640-644.
Vasanti Nair, C.K., Seow, C.C., & Sulebelo, G.A. (1996). Effects of frying parameters on physical
changes of tapioca chips during deep-fat frying. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 31, 249-256.
Yamsaengsung, R., & Moreira, R.G. (2002a). Modeling the transport phenomena and structural changes during deep fat frying, Part I: model development. Journal of Food Engineering, 53, 1-10.
Yamsaengsung, R., & Moreira, R.G. (2002b). Modeling the transport phenomena and structural changes during deep fat frying, Part II: model solution and validation. Journal of Food Engineering, 53, 11-25.
Yamsaengsung, R., Ariyaouchai, T., & Prasertsit, K. (2011). Effect of vacuum frying on structural changes of bananas. Journal of Food Engineering, 106(4), 298-305.